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研究生:蕭鈞毓
研究生(外文):Chun-yu Hsiao
論文名稱:高性能永磁式同步風力發電機之設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of High Performance Permanent-magnet Synchronous Wind Generators
指導教授:葉勝年葉勝年引用關係黃仲欽
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Nian YehJonq-Chin Hwang
口試委員:葉勝年黃仲欽
口試日期:2012-07-09
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:232
中文關鍵詞:高性能同步風力發電頓轉轉矩轉矩漣波有限元素法
外文關鍵詞:High PerformanceSynchronousWind GeneratorsCogging torquetorque rippleFEM
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本文旨在提出一套高性能風力發電機的設計準則,包含高效率、高感應電動勢、低電壓諧波失真、低轉矩漣波及低頓轉轉矩為目標,利用田口法及磁石修弧技術作定子與轉子之最佳化,並用同一電機結構由外部接線來改變雙三相及六相繞組,在低風速時二組三相繞組可串聯以提高輸出電壓;而在高風速時則可採並聯方式,其優點為當其中一組故障時,則另外一組可繼續發電供負載使用。藉由有限元素磁路分析套裝軟體進行磁路與電氣特性分析,從空載及加載的實驗結果探討發電機的特性,並分別以額定容量10 kW及300 W風力發電機來作應用說明並完成實作,成功驗證所提理論及設計方法,其中300 W風機與日本大廠作比較,無論是尺寸大小及材料的用量都較少,在相同轉速下的輸出功率更提高了近40%,效率也達近90%。
本研究利用去除傳統靴部結構來簡化製作定子的製程,也就是採完全開口槽作設計,繞線方式則利用絕緣片先在電機結構外繞製完成
,即可套入定子齒部,此一改良可大幅度提高製程效率並節省成本。另可加裝導磁性較佳的墊片(如傳統矽鋼片或鐵質材料),此墊片可採ㄇ型或鞋型結構,卡入定子齒部,達到類似傳統具有靴部結構之定子。
傳統模擬頓轉轉矩的方式常用全模型或是分割成對稱性結構來處理,但在大型電機或槽數與極數較多的情況下,會受限於有限元素軟體網格數目而無法分析。本文提出了一個新式快速頓轉轉矩分析方法-半磁極對法,配合有限元素套裝軟體及Matlab中的Simulink疊加方式來達到可快速求解與評估頓轉轉矩大小。並利用「力與力臂之槓桿原理」設計出一個簡易且精確的頓轉轉矩量測方式,使用日常生活容易取得的資源來設計量測工具與技術,分別進行16次的量測後再求平均值,與半磁極對之快速法結果相比,差異小於7%,驗證本研究提出之頓轉轉矩快速法的準確性與實用性。
This dissertation is devoted to the analysis and design of high performance permanent-magnet synchronous wind generators. The Taguchi and magnet-shaping methods are used to raise electromotive force, and to reduce voltage total harmonic distortion, respectively. The proposed six-phase and double three-phase windings structures, which consists of six windings in stator, could divide the current of the motor driver evenly and improve the machine safety. Besides, windings are connected in series to increase the output voltage at low speed and in parallel during high speed to generate electricity when either one winding fails. The magnetic and electrical characteristics, such as the magnetic field distribution, equivalent rotor magnetic flux distribution, cogging torque and induced voltage etc., are analyzed by finite element electromagnetic-field analysis software package, Maxwell_2D. Two prototypes generators, 10 kW and 300 W, respectively, are designed in accordance with the proposed method, and verified the performances under load test. The results show a 40% increase in output power with an efficiency of 90% as compared to HR-250, the bigger sized 300 W Japanese generator, which yields 75% efficiency under the same rotating speed.
A new topology is proposed using fully open slots for the stator to reduce the manufacturing complexity by eliminating the traditional boot structure. The ㄇ-shape and shoe types of the stator preferably composed of silicon steel slice and ferrous material allow the spacers wedging into the teeth to improve the manufacturing efficiency, and to reduce the cost.
In order to study the existence and effects of cogging torque, a novel and rapid analysis technique, half magnet pole pair (HMPP), is proposed for forecasting and effectively evaluating cogging torque. Applying the technique with the finite element method and software Matlab, one could evaluate the cogging torque efficiently, meanwhile reduce numerous computing jobs and simulation time. An example of a rotor-skewed structure used to reduce cogging torque of permanent-magnet synchronous machines is evaluated and compared with conventional analysis method for the same motor to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The difference between results from the HMPP and real measurement lies within 7%, proving valuable and suitable usage of the novel method, especially for large-capacity or multiple-pole, multiple-slot machine design.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
符號索引 X
圖目錄 XV
表目錄 XXII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 文獻探討 6
1.3 本文特色 8
1.4 本文大綱 11
第二章 風力發電機結構的關鍵技術及設計理論 12
2.1 前言 12
2.2 風機幾何結構 13
2.3 田口工程法介紹 16
2.4 永磁式同步發電機尺寸計算與有限元素分析 19
2.4.1 應用場合 20
2.4.2 材料選用 23
2.4.2.1 永久磁石 23
2.4.2.2 矽鋼片材料 25
2.4.2.3 導線材料 29
2.4.3 尺寸決定 30
2.4.3.1 電機相數、極數、槽數的選擇 30
2.4.3.2 磁路參數計算 33
2.4.3.3 轉子的尺寸設計 36
2.4.3.4 磁石修弧 40
2.4.3.5 定子的尺寸設計 41
2.4.4 電氣參數計算 43
2.4.4.1 感應電動勢 43
2.4.4.2 導體容許電流 45
2.4.4.3 佔槽率計算 45
2.4.4.4 銅損與鐵損 46
2.4.4.5 發電機功率 47
2.4.4.6 發電機效率 47
2.4.4.7 諧波失真 48
2.4.4.8 轉矩漣波公式 49
2.5 結語 50
第三章 高效率風力發電機之分析及設計 51
3.1 前言 51
3.2 高效率10 kW風力發電機模擬與分析 51
3.2.1 以72槽為主找出較佳的槽極數比 51
3.2.2 10 kW發電機氣隙與磁石厚度決定 52
3.2.3 10 kW發電機繞組接線 55
3.2.4 10 kW發電機轉子磁石最佳化設計 57
3.2.4.1 10 kW發電機磁石極距比 57
3.2.4.2 10 kW發電機磁石修弧 58
3.2.5 10 kW發電機定子尺寸設計 59
3.2.5.1 匝數估算 60
3.2.5.2 佔槽率計算 60
3.2.5.3 靴部尺寸 60
3.2.6 定子槽開口最佳化設計 61
3.2.6.1 槽口槽距比 61
3.2.6.2 固定增加槽開口長度 65
3.2.7 10 kW發電機靜磁分析 68
3.2.8 10 kW發電機感應電動勢分析 70
3.2.8.1 10 kW發電機空載分析 70
3.2.8.2 10 kW發電機加載分析 71
3.2.9 10 kW發電機轉矩漣波 76
3.2.10 10 kW發電機田口法分析 76
3.2.10.1 10 kW發電機用田口法之磁路分析 77
3.2.10.2 10 kW發電機用田口法之空載分析 80
3.3 高效率300W風力發電機模擬與分析 91
3.3.1 以36槽為主找出較佳的槽極數比 91
3.3.2 300 W發電機氣隙與磁石厚度決定 92
3.3.3 300 W發電機繞組接線 93
3.3.4 300 W發電機轉子磁石最佳化設計 95
3.3.4.1 300 W發電機磁石極距比 95
3.3.4.2 300 W發電機磁石修弧 95
3.3.5 定子結構及其製作方法 97
3.3.6 300 W發電機靜磁分析 99
3.3.7 300 W發電機感應電動勢分析 102
3.3.7.1 300 W發電機空載分析 102
3.3.7.2 300 W發電機加載分析 102
3.3.8 300 W發電機田口法分析 104
3.3.8.1 傳統靴部結構發電機之無載磁路分析 105
3.3.8.2 傳統靴部結構發電機無載分析 109
3.3.9 300 W發電機新型靴部結構發電機磁路分析 119
3.3.9.1 新型靴部結構發電機無載分析 122
3.3.9.2 新型靴部結構發電機加載分析 122
3.3.10 300 W發電機轉矩漣波 125
3.4 綜合比較 126
3.5 結語 130
第四章 發電機之頓轉轉矩分析 132
4.1 前言 132
4.2頓轉轉矩理論探討 133
4.3新式快速頓轉轉矩模擬分析方法 136
4.4 應用半磁極對法作發電機之頓轉轉矩分析 143
4.4.1高效率10 kW風力發電機模擬結果 143
4.4.2高效率300 W風力發電機模擬結果 145
4.5 10 kW發電機頓轉轉矩實測 148
4.6 綜合比較 150
4.7 結語 151
第五章 原型機的製作與測試結果評估 152
5.1 前言 152
5.2 量測平台規劃介紹 153
5.3 10 kW發電機測試結果與性能評估 159
5.3.1 10 kW原型機的製作流程 159
5.3.2 10 kW原型機測試結果與性能評估 167
5.3.2.1 10 kW原型機空載測試 167
5.3.2.2 10 kW原型機加載測試 171
5.3.2.3 10 kW原型機綜合比較 176
5.4 300 W發電機測試結果與性能評估 179
5.4.1 300 W原型機的製作流程 181
5.4.2 300 W原型機測試結果與性能評估探討 190
5.4.2.1 300 W原型機未加入靴部結構的空載測試 190
5.4.2.2 300 W原型機未加入靴部結構的加載測試 194
5.4.2.3 300 W原型機加入靴部結構的空載測試 197
5.4.2.4 300 W原型機加入靴部結構的加載測試 199
5.4.2.5 300 W原型機綜合比較 202
5.5 結語 203
第六章 結論與建議 204
6.1 結論 204
6.2 建議 206
參考文獻 207
附錄A 磁石極距比計算 218
附錄B 相序探討 221
附錄C 加拿大10 kW風力發電機 222
附錄D 日本300 W風力發電機 223
附錄E 真圓度量測報告 226
附錄F 實際製作的定子齒部之Maxwell_2D分析報告 229
作者簡介 231
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