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研究生:陳威宏
研究生(外文):WEI-HUNG CHEN
論文名稱:電纜連接器滑軌自動化光學檢測系統之開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of an Automatic Optical Inspection System for the Rails of Cable Connectors
指導教授:鄧昭瑞鄧昭瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Geo-Ry Tang
口試委員:鄧昭瑞
口試日期:2012-06-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:自動化光學檢測電纜連接器瑕疵檢測尺寸量測
外文關鍵詞:automatic optical inspectioncable connectordefect inspectiondimension measurement
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本文探討電纜連接器中滑軌之自動化光學檢測系統的研發。此系
統的硬體採用線性馬達搭配二組數位影像擷取模組整合成單一機台,
開發完成的軟體包含特徵檢測、尺寸量測與瑕疵檢測等三項功能。其
中特徵檢測是對於連接器的螺絲牙孔影像,分別透過傅立葉轉換與小
波轉換後擷取影像中高頻的影像訊號,再搭配自行發展之影像處理程
序,判別工件是否包含牙孔特徵。至於尺寸量測的部分,系統經由邊
點偵測取得工件邊界資訊後,以最小平方法擬合出最適當的直線或圓,
並透過光學尺讀值與特徵在影像中的位置計算孔徑與滑軌工件內、外
寬度。最後對於金屬件可能的表面髒汙、刮傷與氣泡等情形,本文建
議使用影像處理將正常影像移除後統計剩餘的總面積和,藉以判定工
件是否包含瑕疵。
This work develops an automatic optical inspection system for the
rails of cable connectors. The hardware of the system includes two sets
of CCD cameras and a platform driven by linear motors. The coded
software has three main functions which are feature identification,
dimension measurement and defect detection. In order to verify thread
features on the rails, Fourier transform and wavelet transform are used to
capture high-frequency signals on the images with round objects. The
existence of thread features is judged by proper quantitative
characteristics. For the measurement of critical dimensions, edge
detection techniques are employed to collect the points on the circular or
rectangular objects. In addition, least square methods are applied to find
the best lines or circles which fit the rail images. Then, the outer and
inner width of the rails as well as the diameters of holes on the rails are
calculated combining the encoder’s readings of the platform and the
location of specific features on the images. Finally, image subtraction is
recommended to remove normal surface characteristics from the image of
defected products. Different criteria based on the amount of abnormal
pixels are used to determine dirt, scratches or bubbles on the surface of
rails.
摘要 ............................................................................................................. I
Abstract ...................................................................................................... II
誌謝 ........................................................................................................... III
目錄 .......................................................................................................... IV
圖索引 ..................................................................................................... VII
表索引 ...................................................................................................... XI
第一章 緒論............................................................................................... 1
1.1 研究目的 ...................................................................................... 2
1.2 文獻回顧 ...................................................................................... 3
1.3 論文架構 ...................................................................................... 5
第二章 連接器鋅滑軌與影像處理 ........................................................ 7
2.1 壓鑄原理 ...................................................................................... 7
2.2 壓鑄製程與缺陷 .......................................................................... 8
2.3 連接器鋅滑軌 ............................................................................ 10
2.4 空間域影像處理 ........................................................................ 12
2.4.1 影像二值化與自動二值化 ............................................. 12
2.4.2 邊點偵測 ......................................................................... 14
2.4.3 圓偵測 ............................................................................. 16
2.5 頻率域影像處理 ........................................................................ 17
2.5.1 傅立葉轉換 ..................................................................... 17
2.5.2 小波轉換 ......................................................................... 19
第三章 系統架構 .................................................................................. 22
3.1 機構模組 .................................................................................... 23
3.1.1 運動平台 ......................................................................... 24
V
3.1.2 翻轉機構治具 ................................................................. 28
3.2 影像模組 .................................................................................... 33
3.2.1 影像擷取CCD ................................................................. 33
3.2.2 環型光源 ......................................................................... 34
3.3 電控模組 .................................................................................... 36
3.4 軟體控制模組 ........................................................................... 38
第四章 研究方法與實驗結果 ................................................................ 39
4.1 牙孔特徵檢測 ............................................................................ 39
4.1.1 自動抓取牙孔位置 ......................................................... 40
4.1.2 傅立葉轉換 ..................................................................... 44
4.1.3 小波轉換 ......................................................................... 48
4.2 重點尺寸之檢測 ........................................................................ 49
4.2.1 運動平台之校驗 ............................................................. 50
4.2.2 解析度 ............................................................................. 52
4.2.3 寬度量測 ......................................................................... 53
4.2.4 孔徑量測 ......................................................................... 56
4.3 瑕疵檢測 .................................................................................... 58
4.3.1 斷差檢測 ......................................................................... 58
4.3.2 柱腳 ................................................................................. 60
4.3.3 表面髒汙 ......................................................................... 63
4.3.4 刮傷 ................................................................................. 66
4.3.5 氣泡 ................................................................................. 67
4.4 實驗結果 .................................................................................... 69
第五章 結論與未來展望 ...................................................................... 74
5.1 牙孔特徵檢測 ........................................................................... 74
VI
5.2 重點尺寸驗證 ........................................................................... 74
5.3 瑕疵檢測 ................................................................................... 76
5.4 治具機構 ................................................................................... 77
參考文獻 ................................................................................................... 79
附件一 ....................................................................................................... 82
附件二 ....................................................................................................... 83
附件三 ....................................................................................................... 84
附件四 ....................................................................................................... 85
附件五 ....................................................................................................... 86
附件六 ....................................................................................................... 87
附件七 ....................................................................................................... 89
附件八 ....................................................................................................... 91
附件九 ....................................................................................................... 93
附件十 ....................................................................................................... 95
附件十一 ................................................................................................... 97
附件十二 ................................................................................................... 99
附件十三 ................................................................................................. 101
附件十四 ................................................................................................. 102
作者簡介 ................................................................................................. 103
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