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研究生:Leo Adidharma
研究生(外文):Leo Adidharma
論文名稱:Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns under Long Duration Ground Motions
論文名稱(外文):Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns under Long Duration Ground Motions
指導教授:歐昱辰歐昱辰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Chen Ou
口試委員:歐昱辰
口試日期:2012-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:營建工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:Long duration ground motionshysteretic modelexperimental study
外文關鍵詞:Long duration ground motionshysteretic modelexperimental study
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The objective of this research is to examine the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete bridge columns under long duration ground motions. In order to achieve this purpose, two typical reinforced concrete bridge columns designed per current seismic bridge design codes were tested. The first column (called CLC) was tested using the developed loading protocol. This protocol was developed to simulate the effects of long duration ground motions. The second column (called COC) was tested one cycle for each drift to represent short duration ground motions effects and to provide a baseline performance. Test results showed that the column under the long duration loading protocol exhibited significantly greater stiffness and strength degradation than those under the conventional cyclic loading protocol. Based on the test results, relationships between hysteretic parameters, hysteretic energy dissipation and maximum occurred displacement were discussed. The stiffness degradation is related to the hysteretic energy dissipation. The strength degradation is related to the hysteretic energy dissipation and maximum displacement. The pinching is related to maximum displacement.
Furthermore, analytical model was proposed based on test results. This model is capable of considering the effects of hysteretic energy dissipation and maximum occurred displacement on the stiffness degradation, strength degradation and pinching. The model through calibrations can capture the response characteristics of reinforced concrete bridge columns tested under both loading protocols.
Based on the observations of constant-R spectra, if above mentioned effects are not considered properly then ductility demand will be underestimated especially in long duration earthquakes. Note that the underestimation decreased as structural period increased. In addition, ground motion duration was found to be insignificant with respect to ductility demand. According to constant ductility analysis, it is suggested that when a structure is subjected under long duration ground motions, the proposed model is more preferably to be used to predict the response of structure. In contrast, the proposed model may be replaced with the commonly used modified Clough model if the structure is subjected to short duration and not located in short period region.
The objective of this research is to examine the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete bridge columns under long duration ground motions. In order to achieve this purpose, two typical reinforced concrete bridge columns designed per current seismic bridge design codes were tested. The first column (called CLC) was tested using the developed loading protocol. This protocol was developed to simulate the effects of long duration ground motions. The second column (called COC) was tested one cycle for each drift to represent short duration ground motions effects and to provide a baseline performance. Test results showed that the column under the long duration loading protocol exhibited significantly greater stiffness and strength degradation than those under the conventional cyclic loading protocol. Based on the test results, relationships between hysteretic parameters, hysteretic energy dissipation and maximum occurred displacement were discussed. The stiffness degradation is related to the hysteretic energy dissipation. The strength degradation is related to the hysteretic energy dissipation and maximum displacement. The pinching is related to maximum displacement.
Furthermore, analytical model was proposed based on test results. This model is capable of considering the effects of hysteretic energy dissipation and maximum occurred displacement on the stiffness degradation, strength degradation and pinching. The model through calibrations can capture the response characteristics of reinforced concrete bridge columns tested under both loading protocols.
Based on the observations of constant-R spectra, if above mentioned effects are not considered properly then ductility demand will be underestimated especially in long duration earthquakes. Note that the underestimation decreased as structural period increased. In addition, ground motion duration was found to be insignificant with respect to ductility demand. According to constant ductility analysis, it is suggested that when a structure is subjected under long duration ground motions, the proposed model is more preferably to be used to predict the response of structure. In contrast, the proposed model may be replaced with the commonly used modified Clough model if the structure is subjected to short duration and not located in short period region.
ABSTRACT i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii
LIST OF TABLES v
TABLE OF FIGURES vi
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Motivation of research 3
1.3. Objectives and scopes 3
1.4. Outline 4
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1. Bouc-Wen-Baber-Noori hysteresis model (Baber and Noori, 1985) 5
2.1.1. Equation of Motions and Constitutive Relations 5
2.1.2. Hysteretic Shape Properties 7
2.1.3. Degradation Parameters 10
2.2. Modified Clough 11
2.3. Previous Research 13
2.3.1. Ground motion duration effects on nonlinear seismic response (Iervolino et al., 2006) 13
2.3.2. Influence of ground motion duration on degrading SDOF systems (Bojorquez, Iervolino, Manfredi, and Cosenza, 2006) 14
2.3.3. Using spectral matched records to explore the influence of strong-motion duration on inelastic structural response (Hancock and Bommer, 2007) 19
2.3.4. Identification and verification of seismic demand from different hysteretic models (Chung and Loh, 2002) 20
2.3.5. Cumulative seismic damage of reinforced concrete bridge piers (Kunnath, El-Bahy, Taylor, and Stone, 1997) 21
2.4. Effect of Long Duration 23
3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 24
3.1. Specimens design 24
3.2. Material of specimens 25
3.3. Test setup and instrumentation 26
3.4. Loading protocol 28
3.4.1. Ground motion selection 28
3.4.2. Rainflow algorithm 29
3.4.3. Loading protocol procedure and applied loading. 32
3.5. Damage observation 35
3.5.1. Damage index 39
3.5.2. Effects of hysteretic energy dissipation 53
3.5.3. Effects of maximum displacement 54
3.5.4. Curvature, shear strain and displacement distribution 54
4. ANALYSIS STUDY 59
4.1. Preliminary modification 59
4.1.1. Strength Degradation Function Modification 59
4.1.2. Pinching function modification 60
4.2. Model calibration 64
4.3. Constant-R analysis 65
4.3.1. Constant R analysis with real ground motions 66
4.3.2. Constant-R analysis with compatible ground motions 68
4.4. Constant ductility analysis 74
5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 76
5.1. Conclusion 76
5.2. Future works 77
Reference 78
APPENDIX A Ground Motions Characteristics 80
ASTM E1049-85 “Standard Practices for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis”, ASTM International, Conshohocken, PA, 1985, DOI: 10.1520/E1049-85R11E01, www.astm.org.
Baber, T. T., and Wen, Y. K., "Stochastic Equivalent Linearization for Hysteretic Degrading, Multistory Structures," Civil Engineering Studies, Structural Research Series, No. 471, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111., Dec, 1979.
Baber, T. T., and Wen, Y. K., "Random Vibration of Hysteretic Degrading Systems," journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 107, No. EM6, Dec, 1981, pp. 1069-1087.
Baber, T. T., and Noori, M. N. (1985). Random Vibration of Degrading, Pinching Systems. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 111(8), 1010-1026.
Bouc, R., "Mathematical Model for Hysteresis," Re-port to the Centre de RecherchesPhysiques, Marseille, France, pp. 16-25.
Bojorquez, E., Iervolino, I., Manfredi, G., and Cosenza, E. (2006). Influence of ground motion duration on degrading SDOF systems.
California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). 2003. “Bridge Design Specification”, Sacramento, California.
Chung, S. T., and Loh, C. H. (2002). Identification and verification of seismic demand from different hysteretic models. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 6(3), 331-355.
Clough, R. W. (1966). Effect of Stiffness Degradation on Earthquake Ductility Requirements: University of California, Department of Civil Engineering.
Dhakal, R. P., and Maekawa, K. (2002). Path-dependent cyclic stress–strain relationship of reinforcing bar including buckling. Engineering Structures, 24(11), 1383-1396. doi: 10.1016/s0141-0296(02)00080-9
Foliente, G. C. (1993). Stochastic Dynamic Response of Wood Structural Systems: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Hancock, J., and Bommer, J. J. (2007). Using spectral matched records to explore the influence of strong-motion duration on inelastic structural response. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 27(4), 291-299. doi: DOI 10.1016/j.soildyn.2006.09.004
Hancock, J., Watson-Lamprey, J., Abrahamson, N. A., Bommer, J. J., Markatis, A., Mccoy, E., and Mendis, R. (2006). An improved method of matching response spectra of recorded earthquake ground motion using wavelets. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 10, 67-89.
Iervolino, I., Manfredi, G., and Cosenza, E. (2006). Ground motion duration effects on nonlinear seismic response. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 35(1), 21-38. doi: 10.1002/eqe.529
Kunnath, S. K., El-Bahy, A., Taylor, A. W., and Stone, W. C. (1997). Cumulative seismic damage of reinforced concrete bridge piers. Technical Report NCEER(97-0006).
Mahin, S. A., and Bertero, V. V. (1975). An evaluation of some methods for predicting seismic behavior of reinforced concrete buildings: Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California.
Mahin, S. A., and Lin, J. (1984). Construction of inelastic response spectra for single-degree-of-freedom systems: computer program and applications: University of California, Earthquake Engineering Research Center.
Mander, J. B., Priestley, M. J. N., and Park, R. (1988). Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete. Journal of Structural Engineering, 114(8), 1804-1826.
MOTC. (2009), Seismic Design Code for Highway Bridges (in Chinese)
Nieslony, A. (2009). Determination of fragments of multiaxial service loading strongly influencing the fatigue of machine components. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 23(8), 2712-2721. doi: DOI 10.1016/j.ymssp.2009.05.010
Nieslony, A. (2010). Rain flow counting method, set of functions with user guide for use with MATLAB, from http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/3026
Park, Y.-J., Ang, A. H. S., and Wen, Y. K. (1985). Seismic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings. Journal of Structural Engineering, 111(4), 740-757.
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