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研究生:Ifta Minka
研究生(外文):Ifta Minka
論文名稱:使用Haar小波轉換(HWT)以超音波傳播數值分析研究混凝土碳化
論文名稱(外文):Numerical Study on Concrete Carbonation with Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Using Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT)
指導教授:張大鵬
指導教授(外文):Ta-Peng Chang
口試委員:張大鵬
口試日期:2012-07-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:營建工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:Haar wavelet transform (HWT)Signal processingCarbonationNon-destructive test of concrete
外文關鍵詞:Non-destructive test of concreteCarbonationSignal processingHaar wavelet transform (HWT)
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Concrete is a widely used material in the world. Concrete as an exterior component must resist to severe aggressive agents and reactive agents. Carbonation of concrete is one type of concrete deteriorations which are able to deliver corrosion of reinforced bars and change the characteristic of concrete material. Generally, the detection of carbonation was conducted using phenolphthalein 1% solution. However, previous experiment showed that this method is destructive and may not be able to indicate the significance of detailed carbonation. Therefore, this paper focuses on developing a nondestructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method to estimate the carbonation depth with a signal processing technique, called Haar wavelet transform (HWT). In this research, the transformation result of HWT transformation is used to evaluate the carbonation damaged of concrete material from numerical simulation of finite element model. Then this method is also verified by experimental work.
Numerical simulation with ultrasonic wave propagation is delivered by using the commercial finite element analysis software LS-DYNA in which a 2-D axisymmetric finite element model is used to simulate concrete carbonated model of 40 mm of thickness and 60 mm of length. Two layers, three layers, four layers and five layers consist of carbonated layer with different thickness overlaying and percentage increase (%) of Young’s modulus (17%??4%) overlaying un-carbonated concrete (ordinary concrete).
The numerical results show that Haar wavelet transform could be used for depth detection with an error less than 3% and the accuracy of detection depends on the acoustic impedance (Z) at each layer of carbonation models. A double layered and multi layered carbonation models with ratio of acoustic impedance higher than 1.20 could be effectively identified carbonation layered.
Concrete is a widely used material in the world. Concrete as an exterior component must resist to severe aggressive agents and reactive agents. Carbonation of concrete is one type of concrete deteriorations which are able to deliver corrosion of reinforced bars and change the characteristic of concrete material. Generally, the detection of carbonation was conducted using phenolphthalein 1% solution. However, previous experiment showed that this method is destructive and may not be able to indicate the significance of detailed carbonation. Therefore, this paper focuses on developing a nondestructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method to estimate the carbonation depth with a signal processing technique, called Haar wavelet transform (HWT). In this research, the transformation result of HWT transformation is used to evaluate the carbonation damaged of concrete material from numerical simulation of finite element model. Then this method is also verified by experimental work.
Numerical simulation with ultrasonic wave propagation is delivered by using the commercial finite element analysis software LS-DYNA in which a 2-D axisymmetric finite element model is used to simulate concrete carbonated model of 40 mm of thickness and 60 mm of length. Two layers, three layers, four layers and five layers consist of carbonated layer with different thickness overlaying and percentage increase (%) of Young’s modulus (17%??4%) overlaying un-carbonated concrete (ordinary concrete).
The numerical results show that Haar wavelet transform could be used for depth detection with an error less than 3% and the accuracy of detection depends on the acoustic impedance (Z) at each layer of carbonation models. A double layered and multi layered carbonation models with ratio of acoustic impedance higher than 1.20 could be effectively identified carbonation layered.
ABSTRACT i
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 10
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND 10
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH 14
1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS 15
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 18
2.1 INTRODUCTION 18
2.2 APPLICATION OF CONCRETE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST 18
2.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST USING ULTRASONIC METHOD 19
2.4 CARBONATION OF CONCRETE 22
2.5 WAVE PROPAGATION 23
2.5.1 Wave propagation in solid materials 24
2.5.2 Wave velocity and Wavelength 24
2.6 LAW OF REFRACTION 26
2.7 ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE (Z) 26
2.8 HAAR WAVELET TRANSFORM 31
2.8.1 Introduction of Haar Wavelet Transform 32
2.8.2 The Haar Transform 33
2.8.3 The Haar Wavelets 35
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS 46
3.1 INTRODUCTION 46
3.2 PARAMETER ANALYSIS 47
3.2.1 Parameters in Simulation 47
3.2.2 Parameters of Simulation for Verification Model 50
3.3 COMPUTATION PROCESS 51
3.4 VERIFICATION OF HWT METHOD WITH EXPERIMENTAL WORK 52
CHAPTER 4 NUMERICAL RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 61
4.1 INTRODUCTION 61
4.2 VERIFICATION OF NUMERICAL MODEL 61
4.3 DOUBLE-LAYERED CARBONATED CONCRETE 62
4.3.1 Reflection Coefficient, Transmission Coefficient and Reflection Loss on Double-Layered Carbonation Model 62
4.3.2 Results for Carbonation Damaged Detection Based on Time Arrival Estimation with 10, 15 and 20 mm of Carbonation Thickness 63
4.4 MULTI-LAYERED CARBONATED CONCRETE 64
4.4.1 Reflection Coefficient, Transmission Coefficient and Reflection Loss on Multi-Layered Carbonated Concrete 65
4.4.2 Results on Three-Layered Carbonated Concrete 66
4.4.3 Results on Four-Layered Carbonated Concrete 66
4.4.4 Results from Five Layers Carbonated Concrete 67
4.4.5 Discussion 67
4.5 VERIFICATION WITH EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 68
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 92
5.1 CONCLUSIONS 92
5.2 CONTRIBUTION OF THESIS 94
5.3 FUTURE DIRECTIONS 94
REFERENCES 95
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