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研究生:陳嘉翠
研究生(外文):Chia-tsui Chen
論文名稱:線上思考工具融入社會文化理論於台灣高中英文課程
論文名稱(外文):Implementing Cognitive-Mediation Theory via Online Thinking Tools in a High School EFL Class in Taiwan
指導教授:陳聖傑陳聖傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-jie Chen
口試委員:陳聖傑
口試日期:2011-12-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:電腦輔助任務社會文化理論資料分析
外文關鍵詞:content analysiscognitive-mediation theoryinformation communication technology
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摘 要
近來在台灣教育界的革新方法就是在線上思考工具軟體上建構理念,意圖融合傳統的教學模式與資訊融入教學的學習模式。除此之外,探究導向教學法賦與學生在以下兩方面享有較大自由:能自然地與同學合作,以及能主動地在自身學習上扮演主導的角色。立基於上述教學理論,本研究意圖探究高中生運用線上思考工具的小組互動情況。鑑於維谷斯基的社會文化觀點,本研究探索在北台灣四十名高中生同步與非同步互動內容。為期三個月裡,收集的研究資料為線上思考工具的合併語言資料,研究對象的週記,和問卷,並以林姆與捷克伯在二零零一年所提出的編碼法加以編碼和計算。後續對於某些研究對象的晤談也列入分析,去檢視研究對象互動時的可能發展區。研究結果顯示在資訊融入教學的任務學習當中,主要衍生出來的鷹架功能包含建構資訊,示現模範,以及提供回饋。換句話說,研究對象在互動中表現出最多的就是提供新概念或片段資訊以促成任務的完成。此外,還發現第一、在此類以學生為主的教學法中,尤其是七人一組時,某些組員應扮演組長的角色使整組依照要求去完成。第二、在執行任務為基礎的小組計畫時,學生表現出較高的溝通意願並承擔完成任務的責任。第三、在學習過程中享有較大自由的情況下,研究對象能自在表達真正感受,而不是蟄伏或緘默。本研究在教學上的影響以及建議有兩點:第一、任務中小組學習的議題應用心設計在教學上,以喚起研究對象的參與意願以及承擔自身學習上的責任。第二、由於線上思考工具能鼓勵研究對象的鷹架策略和溝通意願,此工具將足以成為語言教學上的另一有效選擇。
Abstract

Technology-mediated tasks have been integrated into learning and teaching in recent years and an increasing number of studies have shown the effects of combining the traditional didactic mode of teaching with the computer-based problem-solving mode of learning. In addition, the collaborative pedagogy benefits people, teachers and students alike, in many aspects. The student-centered didactic mode allows students to enjoy more freedom in dominating the flow and pace in their own learning process. As for teachers, small group interaction allows them more chances to observe their students and adapt their teaching styles and philosophy. On the basis of the benefits mentioned, this research aims to investigate the effects of implementing cognitive-mediation theory via the online thinking tools (OTT) in an EFL high school classroom. With Vygotsky’s cognitive-mediation theory as an inspiration, this study explores the asynchronous and synchronous discourse of 40 students in an EFL class in a high school in northern Taiwan. Data were collected over the course of three months via the online thinking tools, the participants’ weekly reflective journals, and questionnaires coded and counted on the basis of the coding scheme of Lim & Jacobs (2001a). Follow-up interviews with certain participants were also analyzed to investigate the effect of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) through the collaboration of the participants. Results showed that during the process of the computer-mediated communication, the scaffolding functions derived were mostly composed of “propositional knowledge”, “modeling” and “providing feedback”. In other words, the major element of the participants’ collaboration was to provide new ideas or segments of information leading to the achievement of the task. Furthermore, it was found that: (1) in such a collaborative teaching mode, one of the group members should take the lead so that the whole group might work as a single unit to complete the program as required; (2) in conducting the task-based group projects, students showed more willingness to communicate and to take part in team work in completing the task;(3) enjoying more freedom in their learning process, the participants gained more confidence to express their true feelings rather than stay silent. The pedagogical suggestions derived from the findings of the result are: (1) the integration of the collaborative teaching mode should be elaborately designed to enhance the willingness to participate and to shoulder their responsibility in learning; (2) as computer-mediated communication may improve the development of the participants’ scaffolding strategies and willingness to communicate, it is a beneficial alternative for language teachers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ENGLISH ABSTRACT…………………………………………….………………………….………i
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………....…………………. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………….…...…….....v
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………... ……...vii
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………...ix
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………..x

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………1
Background and Motivation………...…………………………………..…………… 1
Significance of the Study……………......…………………………………………... 5
Research Questions…………………..…………………………………………........ 7

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW………………...……………………………...8
Cognitive Giants: Piaget and Vygotsky………………………………..…………… 8
Empirical Studies Related to Socio-Cultural Theory ……………………...………. 13
Empirical Studies Related to Information and Communication Technology…..….. 16

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY………………………………………………...…..18

An Overview of the Research………..………………………………………..…… 18
Setting………………………………...……………… ……………………………. 20
Participants……………………………....…………………………………………. 20
Treatment…………………………………..…………………………..…………… 21
Research Media……………………………..……………………………………… 25
Data Collection and Analysis………………..…………..………………….……… 31
Pilot Study………………………………..…..…………………………….………. 34

CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. ….………………………………….. 36
Results of OTT Tasks ……………..…………………………………………..…… 36
Regarding the Corpus of SR Tool …………………………..…..………………. 37
Regarding the Corpus of VR Tool..…..…………………………………………. 38
Results of Content Analysis…....…….………………………………..…………… 39
Regarding Scaffolding Functions Found during the Task…………………..…… 39
Regarding SR Tool……………..……………………..………………….……… 40
Results of the Participants’ Journal Writing.……………………………….………. 44
Results of the Entire Computer-Mediated Task…………………………….…….... 50


CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………..56
Summary of Results ..……………..…………………………………………..…… 56
Answers to Research Questions of This Study…….…………..…..………………. 58
Pedagogical Implications…..………………………………………………………. 64
Limitations of This Study..……..……………………………………..…………… 65
Suggestions for Future Studies………………………………………………..…… 66

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………...68

APPENDICES………………………...………………………………………………….71
APPENDIX A: Coding Instructions to the Coder…………………………………….71
APPENDIX B: Data Coding Scheme…………………………………………………73
APPENDIX C: Best Country for Summer School Instructions………………….........74
APPENDIX D: Best Country for Summer School Worksheet………………………..75
APPENDIX E: Data Counting………………………………………………………...77
APPENDIX F: Directions on OTT-task………………………………………………78
APPENDIX G: Online Inquiry-based Questionnaire..............…………………….......82
APPENDIX H: Online Inquiry-based Questionnaire_Chinese………………………..84
APPENDIX I: Visual Results of Seeing Reason Tool………………………………...86
APPENDIX J: Visual Results of Visual Ranking Tool…………………………….....90
APPENDIX K: Examples of Inquiry-Based:Suggestions……………...…………......94
APPENDIX L: The Criteria of Evaluating Communicational Ability……………......96

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1
Comparison between Piaget and Vygotsky…………….…………….12
Table 3.1 Participants Profile……………………………………….…………..21
Table 3.2 Topics of the Weekly Journals………………………………….….....23
Table 3.3 Inquiry-based Task…………………………..……………………......31
Table 3.4 Definition of Scaffolding Functions in Peer Interaction……………...33
Table 4.1 Ranking Items………………….……………………………………..38
Table 4.2 Regarding Scaffolding Functions Found during the Task…..…….….39
Table 4.3 Definition of the Criteria of Evaluating Communicational Ability.....41
Table 4.4 The Criteria of Evaluating Communicational Ability .………….…...42
Table 4.5 Factors Affecting Online Inquiry-based Task the Most ………….….51
Table 4.6 Extra Factors Affecting Online Inquiry-based Task……………....…52

List of Figures

Figure 3.1 OTT Example of Logging in.…………………………….…………...28
Figure 3.2 OTT Example of VR Project 1………………………………….….....28
Figure 3.3 OTT Example of SR Project 1..……………..……………………......29
Figure 4.1 Result of Seeing Reason Tool ………………………………………...37
Figure 4.2 Result of Visual Ranking Tool .………………………………..……..38
Figure 4.3 Overall Percentage of Scaffolding Functions ……………...…….…...39
Figure 4.4 Overall Percentage of Most Influential Factors in Online Inquiry-based Task ……………………………..…………………………………….51
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