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研究生:傅麗萍
研究生(外文):Fu, Liping
論文名稱:客語兒向語塞音之研究
論文名稱(外文):An Acoustic Study of Stops in Hakka Infant-Directed Speech
指導教授:鄭明中鄭明中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Mingchung
口試委員:鍾榮富鄧盛有
口試委員(外文):Chung, RaungfuDeng, ShengIou
口試日期:2012-07-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立聯合大學
系所名稱:客家語言與傳播研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:客語兒向語塞音語言習得VOT頻譜能量高峰音節比
外文關鍵詞:HakkaInfant-Directed Speechstopslanguage acquisitionVOTspectral peakconsonant/syllable ratio
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本文為苗栗縣四縣腔客語在兒向語(Infant-Directed Speech, IDS)的塞音中,針對濁音起始時間、頻譜能量高峰和音節比等聲學參數,所進行的實驗研究,我們透過實驗語音學的方法及工具,探討兒向語的聲學特性,並透過與「成人語」(Adult-Directed Speech, ADS)的比較,說明他們之間的差異,並觀察兒向語在客語的整體趨勢為何。
研究的實驗過程如下:選取 5 位居住在苗栗縣並說四縣客語的女性客家人擔任發音人,研究字表則包括由客語 6 個塞音 [ p、t、k、ph、th、kh ],後接 3 個頂點元音 [i、a、u] 所組成的 18 個生活化詞彙,在嬰兒出生起的 6 個月內,每個月均完成兒向語和成人語的錄音,最後將目標音切出,進行後續測量和分析。
研究結果顯示,整體而言,客語兒向語在各方面都比成人語來得誇大、擴張。首先,VOT時間訊號有延長,且延長趨勢遵循著內在時長差異,呈現舌根音 > 齒齦音 > 雙唇音,但並非如Sundberg的母嬰語音互動模式,本研究發現參與者起初比後期更為強調VOT,因此該模式有重新評估的必要。此外,兒向語在輔音的研究上,以往都只著重在時長的探討上,本文提出對頻率特徵擴張的關注,因為這些語音單位之間的差異增加,使得兒向語的發音明顯相對清晰,可能使得「對比特徵」更容易被感知到,將可以幫助幼兒語言學習的發展。另外,本文中就「音節比」的觀點,進行更深層的思考,彌補以往輔音研究中忽略的重點,語音在擴張、延長時,必須是在不破壞原有聲韻比例的前提下,才能正確幫助嬰兒學習音韻。最後,本文提出兒向語並非喬姆斯基所說的毫無章法可言,而是經過母親針對不同年齡的嬰兒,做出不自覺的「策略性」語音調整,這將可使嬰兒正確的學習語音系統,總之,探索客語兒向語的奧妙,本文做了一定程度的貢獻。

This acoustic research examined the acoustic parameters of the voice onset time (VOT), spectral peak and consonant/syllable ratio upon Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) of the stops in Si-xian Hakka. Through the methods and tools of experimental phonetics, we investigated the overall trend of acoustic characteristics of IDS, in comparisons with Adult-Directed Speech (ADS) in Hakka.
In this study, the experimental process is as follows. We selected 5 Hakka women, who live in Miaoli County and speak Si-xian Hakka, as our participants in the speech recording. The test stimuli consisted of 18 Hakka vocabularies of daily life, and these syllables were comprised of 6 word-initial stops [p, t, k, ph, th, kh] and followed by 3 vowels [i, a, u]. In the first six months from the babies were born, we collected the sounds of IDS and ADS respectively every month. Then, we selected and segmented the target sound, and proceeded the follow-up measurements and analysis.
The result shows that the overall IDS was more expanded and extended than ADS in Hakka. First, the time duration of VOT was longer, and the trend of extension was followed by the difference of intrinsic duration, that is, velar > alveolar > bilabial. The outcome in this experiment was not like MIPhI Model from Sundberg; the participants put more emphasis on VOT in the beginning than they did in the later. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate this model. In addition, the past study of consonants in IDS used to focus only on the temporal cues. In this paper, however, we concerned the expansion of the frequency characteristics for those increases in the difference among phonetic units make relatively clear in IDS pronunciation, and thus may make the contrast characteristics more likely be perceived. Therefore it will help the development of early childhood language learning. In order to make up the deficiency of the previous consonant study, we took deeper thinking in the consonant/syllable ratio. Speech sounds should be expanded and extended on the premise without breaking the original rhyme proportion so as to help babies learn phonology properly. Last but not least, the IDS we brought up was not as clueless as Chomsky supposed. The mothers, based on the different ages of the babies, made an adjustment in their unconscious “strategic” speech sounds. It led the babies a correct way of speech system learning. As a whole, this article is a great contribution to Hakka IDS.

目錄

誌 謝 詞 I
中文摘要 III
ABSTRACT IV
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究問題 4
1.4 研究貢獻 5
1.5 章節規劃 5
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2.1 客語的語音系統 7
2.1.1 客語音節結構 7
2.1.2 客語的聲母 8
2.1.3 客語的韻母 9
2.1.4 客語的聲調 10
2.2 聲學語音學及塞音運用 12
2.2.1 濁音起始時間 13
2.2.3 頻譜能量高峰 15
2.3 兒向語及其功能 16
2.3.1 超語言功能(paralinguistic functions) 17
2.3.2 語言功能(linguistic functions) 19
2.4 兒向語的語音研究回顧 20
2.4.1 元音 21
2.4.2 聲調 22
2.4.3 輔音 26
2.4.4 兒向語研究上的不足 28
2.5 小結 31
第三章 研究方法 33
3.1 參與者 33
3.2 字表設計 34
3.3 研究工具 35
3.4 研究過程 36
3.4.1 語音蒐集階段 36
3.4.2 切音 37
3.4.3 聲學測量 38
3.4.4 數據統計分析 39
第四章 結果與討論 40
4.1 VOT 40
4.1.1 送氣與否 40
4.1.2 發音部位 42
4.1.3 後接元音 46
4.2 頻譜能量高峰 49
4.3 音節比 53
4.4 綜合討論 58
第五章 結論 66
5.1 研究發現及討論 66
5.2 研究限制與未來建議 68
參考文獻 70
【中文部份】 70
【英文部份】 72
附錄 80
附錄A 發音人資料 80
附錄B 個別發音人之VOT原始數據表 (頁81至90) 80
附錄C 個別發音人之頻率原始數據表 (頁91至100) 80
附錄D 個別發音人之音節比原始數據表 (頁101至120) 80

圖目錄
圖2-1-1 客語的音節結構 8
圖2-2-1 「衝直條」及「VOT」示意圖 13
圖2-2-2 [ pha, tha, kha ] 的塞音VOT聲譜圖 14
圖2-2-3 不同發音部位塞音在衝直條的能量分布 15
圖2-4-1 元音三角 [i, a, u] 的 21
圖2-4-2 元音聲學空間比較圖 22
圖2-4-3 八位母親講普通話的語音樣本 23
圖2-4-4 針對六語言的基頻調查 24
圖2-4-5 泰語和澳洲英語的兒向語聲調基頻曲線圖 24
圖2-4-6 國語一到四聲的聲調基頻 25
圖2-4-7 26
圖2-4-8 MIPhI Model示意圖 30
圖3-3-1 錄音工具 36
圖3-4-1 PRAAT聲音編輯器顯示的視窗 38
圖3-4-2 [pha] 的聲譜圖轉換 38
圖4-1-1 塞音送氣與否的整體VOT 41
圖4-1-2 送氣塞音與不送氣塞音的VOT 43
圖4-2-1 不分送氣塞音的最大頻率區 50
圖4-3-1 送氣與否比值圖 54
圖4-3-2 不送氣/送氣塞音比值圖 55
圖4-3-3 後接元音比值圖 57
圖4-4-1 依月份送氣與否VOT 59
圖4-4-2 元音聲學空間比較圖 61
圖4-4-3 不送氣塞音VOT月份圖 62
圖4-4-4 送氣塞音VOT月份圖 62
圖4-4-5 塞音頻率月份圖 64
圖4-4-6 塞音的最大頻率區 64


表目錄
表2-1-1 四縣客語之聲母表 9
表2-1-2 四縣客家話之韻母表 10
表2-1-3 四縣客語聲調表 10
表3-1-1 母嬰二人組合背景資料 34
表3-2-1 目標字列表 34
表4-1-1 ADS/IDS送氣與否比較 40
表4-1-2 ADS/IDS塞音整體比較 42
表4-1-3 ADS/IDS各發音部位比較 42
表4-1-4 ADS各發音部位的顯著性關係 44
表4-1-5 IDS各發音部位的顯著性關係 44
表4-1-6 發音部位比較ADS/IDS 45
表4-1-7 ADS/IDS 元音比較 47
表4-1-8 ADS/IDS各元音交叉的顯著性關係 48
表4-2-1 ADS/IDS各發音部位比較 50
表4-2-2各發音部位的顯著性關係 51
表4-2-3 發音部位比較ADS/IDS 52
表4-3-1 送氣與否ADS/IDS比較 53
表4-3-3 發音部位與元音交互作用列表 56


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