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研究生:郭淑珠
研究生(外文):Kuo Shu-Chu
論文名稱:客語兒向語的擦音聲學分析--以東勢大埔腔為例
論文名稱(外文):An Acoustic Analysis of Fricatives in Hakka Infant-Directed SpeechBased on Dapu Hakka in Dongshi Township
指導教授:鄭明中鄭明中引用關係
口試委員:鍾榮富鄧盛有
口試日期:2012-07-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立聯合大學
系所名稱:客家語言與傳播研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:客語兒向語擦音摩擦時長頻譜能量高峰
外文關鍵詞:Hakka, IDS, fricative, fricative duration, spectral peak
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本文為東勢大埔客語兒向語(infant-directed speech, IDS)擦音之聲學研究,旨在考察擦音在兒向語和成人語(adult-directed speech,ADS)中,摩擦噪音時長、頻譜高峰和音節比(consonant/syllable ratio)之異同,並檢視母嬰語音互動模式在客語兒向語擦音的適用性,以及比較不同身份別在兒向語的表現。
本研究對9組說東勢客家話的成人與嬰兒進行為期一年的觀察。採用6個生活常用的雙音節詞做為研究用字,分別由東勢客家話的擦音[s, S]後接3個頂點母音[i, a, u]互相搭配而成,前字為目標字。錄音是在嬰兒3、6、9、12個月大之時進行,參與的成人利用研究者所提供與字表相對應的玩具或圖卡,自然地與嬰兒互動,並說出目標字;透過PRAAT語音分析軟體進行樣本挑選、聲學分析(測量摩擦時長與頻譜能量高峰);再透過SPSS統計套裝軟體進行統計處理及繪製圖表。
研究結果如下:(一)摩擦噪音時長方面,由總體趨勢來看,[s, S]的兒向語時長均明顯大於成人語,而[s]的兒向語時長雖然大於[S]的兒向語時長,但是差異不顯著;進一步分析,從後接母音[i, a, u]來看,[s]與[S]在成人語中的時長有顯著差異,但是其順序並不一致,並且[s]與[S]在兒向語中的時長差異不顯著;[s, S]在兩種語體的時長,均呈現兒向語>成人語。從月份別來看,整個研究期間,除了第12個月,[s]與[S]之間的成人語時長差異顯著,不論哪個語體,[s]與[S]的時長相當,差異不顯著。此外,第3、6、9、12個月的[s, S]時長,在兒向語中均有延長的趨勢。(二)頻譜能量高峰頻率方面,由總體趨勢來看,不論在兒向語或成人語,[s]的高峰頻率均高於[S],而且達到統計上的顯著水準;[s, S]的兒向語高峰頻率均明顯比成人語來得高。進一步分析,從後接母音[i, a, u]來看,在兩種語體中,[s]的高峰頻率均明顯高於[S];另外,[s, S]的兒向語高峰頻率均高於成人語,但[s]僅在後接母音[i]的兒向語高峰頻率顯著高於成人語,[S]在每個後接母音中的高峰頻率,兒向語顯著高於成人語。從月份別來看,不論在兒向語或成人語,在整個研究期間,[s]的高峰頻率均顯著高於[S],並且[s, S]的兒向語高峰頻率高於成人語,但只有[S]的差異顯著。從以上分析得知,[S]在兒向語頻譜擴大的現象比[s]明顯。(三)音節比部分,由總體趨勢來看,不論[s]或[S],音節比都呈現成人語大於兒向語,而且差異顯著。進一步分析,從後接母音[i, a, u]來看,[s]後接母音[i, a]的音節比,兒向語明顯小於成人語,在後接母音[u]中,兒向語與成人語趨近;[S]後接母音[i]的音節比,兒向語比成人語明顯來得小,但是在後接母音[a, u]中,兒向語與成人語趨近。從月份別來看,[s]除了第6個月的音節比,成人語顯著大於兒向語之外,其他月份的音節比,均呈現成人語與兒向語趨近;[S]在第3、6個月的音節比,兒向語明顯比成人語小,但在第9、12個月,出現成人語與兒向語相當。從以上發現,音節比有出現縮小的現象,即母音延長的程度大於子音,但大致上母音與子音是依一定的比例擴大,所以成人語與兒向語的音節比趨近。(四)不同身份別部分,從摩擦時長來看,三個身份別在成人語的摩擦時長呈現[s]大於[S],或是[s]與[S]相當;在兒向語的摩擦時長呈現[s]與[S]相當。並且三個身份別的[s, S]摩擦時長,在兒向語均有顯著擴大的現象。從頻譜能量高峰頻率來看,不論是兒向語或成人語,三者的高峰頻率,[s]均明顯高於[S];[S]的高峰頻率,在媽媽、爸爸和保母的兒向語和成人語中差異顯著,[s]的高峰頻率僅在媽媽的兒向語和成人語中差異顯著。從音節比來看,媽媽在[s, S]的音節比,兒向語與成人語的差異均顯著,爸爸和保母在[s, S]的音節比,兒向語和成人語的差異皆不顯著。從頻譜特徵和音節比這兩方面,可說明媽媽所產生的兒向語的特別性。
最後,根據上述結果,本文針對母嬰語音互動模式的適切性提出說明與修正,並對[s, S]在兒向語中的表現差異提供合理的解釋。

This acoustic study of fricatives of IDS (infant-directed speech) in Dongshi Dapu Hakka is designed to examine the similarities and differences between IDS and ADS (adult-directed speech) regarding Frication duration, spectral peak and consonant/ syllable ratio, also to view MIPhI Model applicability of IDS fricative in Hakka and to compare the performances of IDS in different identities .
In this study, the observation of nine groups of adults and infants speaking Dongshi Hakka lasts for one year. The six life-common two-syllable words, consisting of Dongshi Hakka fricative [s, S] and corner vowels [i, a, u], are used as target words. The record was made when infants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old with the participating adults freely interacted with the infants and said the target words by showing toys and/or pictures provided by the researcher. With PRAAT voice analysis software, we conducted the acoustic analysis (measurement of the fricative duration and spectral peak) with the selected samples. The SPSS statistical software package was adopted for statistical processing and plotting graphs.
The results are as follows: (A) In terms of frication duration, from the overall trend, fricative duration of [s, S] in the IDS are significantly greater than in the ADS, and the duration of [s] in IDS, although longer than [S] , but the difference is not significant. Further analysis shows that in the ADS there is significant difference in duration of [s] and [S] when followed by the vowel [i, a, u], but the order is not consistent, and difference of the duration of [s] and [S] in IDS is not significant; Durations of [s, S] in IDS are always longer than in ADS. Looking at the entire study period, except the 12th month, there is obvious difference in duration of [s] and [S] in ADS, regardless of which speech register, durations of [s, S] are similar, the difference is not significant. In addition, the trend shows durations of [s, S] are extended in IDS in the 3rd, 6th, 9th , and 12th month . (B)In terms of spectral peak frequency, from the overall trend, regardless of IDS or ADS, the spectral peak of [s] is higher than [S] and reaches the significant statistical level ; the spectral peak of [s, S] in IDS are significantly higher than in the ADS. Further analysis, when followed by the vowel [i, a, u] , the spectral peak of [s] is significantly higher than the [S] regardless of IDS or ADS; In addition, the spectral peaks of [s, S] in IDS are higher than in ADS, but the spectral peak of [s] in IDS is significant higher than in ADS only when followed by vowel [i] while spectral peak of [S] followed by the vowel [i, a, u] in IDS are all higher than in ADS significantly. Throughout the study period, no matter in which speech register, spectral peak of [s] is significantly higher than [S], and spectral peaks of [s, S] in IDS are higher than in ADS, the difference is more significant in [S]. Conclusion from the above analysis is that spectral peak of [S] in IDS expands more significantly than that of [s].(C) In terms of consonant/Syllable ratio, the overall trend, regardless of [s] or [S] ,consonant/syllable ratio in ADS is bigger than in IDS with significant difference. Further analysis, the consonant/syllable ratio of [s] followed by the vowel [i, a] in IDS is significantly smaller than in ADS and not so obvious if followed by the vowel [u]; the consonant/syllable ratio of [S] followed by vowel [i] in IDS is smaller than in ADS,yet,when followed by vowel [a, u], the difference is very limited.Checking on months, in most months, consonant/syllable ratio of [s] in ADS is narrowly bigger than in IDS except in 6th month; In 3rd and 6th month, consonant/syllable ratio of [S] in ADS is significantly greater than in IDS, however, the difference is not obvious in 9th and 12th month. Thus we found that consonant/syllable ratio is decreasing, vowels extend greater than consonants, but in general the vowels and consonants expand in accordance with a certain proportion,therefore,the consonant/syllable ratio is close in ADS and IDS. (D) In terms of different identities, among dad, mom and nanny, the fricative duration of [s] in ADS is about the same or slightly longer than [S]. In IDS, the fricative duration of [s] and [S] are close; the fricative duration of [s, S] in IDS expands significantly with all three identities. From the spectral peak : regardless of IDS or ADS, the spectral peak of [s] is significantly higher than [S]; the difference of spectral peak in IDS and ADS is obvious among dad, mom and nanny while the spectral peak of [S] is only obvious with mom. From the Consonant/Syllable ratio : mom has obvious different consonant/syllable ratio of [s, S] in both IDS and ADS, the dad and the nanny show no obvious different consonant/syllable ratio of [s, S] in both IDS and ADS. From the spectral characteristics and consonant/syllable ratio, it explains well enough the influence of mom in forming the characteristics of IDS.
In the end, according to the above results, this article strives to deliver the descriptions and remediation for the appropriateness of the Mother-Infant Phonetic Interaction Model, also to provide a satisfactory explanation of performance differences of [s, S] in IDS .

致謝詞 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究問題 2
1.4研究重要性 3
1.5研究限制與建議 3
1.6章節規劃 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
2.1大埔客家話的音韻系統 5
2.1.1 音節結構 5
2.1.2 聲母 6
2.1.3 韻母 6
2.1.4 聲調 7
2.2擦音的聲學特徵 8
2.2.1 摩擦噪音時長 9
2.2.2頻譜能量高峰 9
2.3兒向語 10
2.3.1 兒向語的特徵 12
2.3.2兒向語的功能 13
2.3.2.1兒向語的非語言功能 13
2.3.2.2兒向語的語言功能 14
2.3.3兒向語的語音特徵 14
2.3.3.1兒向語的韻律特徵 15
2.3.3.2兒向語的母音特徵 15
2.3.3.3兒向語的子音特徵 16
2.3.3.4母嬰語音互動模式 17
2.3.4兒向語研究的不足 18
2.4小結 19
第三章 研究方法 20
3.1參與人 20
3.2字表 21
3.3研究工具 21
3.3.1使用設備 21
3.3.2語音分析軟體 23
3.4研究操作 24
3.4.1錄音 24
3.4.2資料分析 25
3.4.3數據統計 26
3.4.4繪圖軟體 27
第四章 結果與討論 28
4.1摩擦噪音時長 28
4.1.1後接母音對摩擦噪音時長的影響 30
4.1.2身份別對摩擦噪音時長的影響 32
4.1.3月份別對摩擦噪音時長的影響 35
4.2頻譜能量高峰 37
4.2.1後接母音對頻譜能量高峰的影響 39
4.2.2身份別對頻譜能量高峰的影響 41
4.2.3月份別對頻譜能量高峰的影響 44
4.3音節比 46
4.3.1後接母音對音節比的影響 48
4.3.2身份別對音節比的影響 50
4.3.3月份別對音節比的影響 53
4.4綜合討論 55
4.5小結 62
第五章 結論 64
5.1研究發現與討論 64
5.2對未來研究的建議 66
參考文獻 67
中文部分 67
英文部分 69
附錄 74

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