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研究生:李易儒
研究生(外文):Lee, Yi-Ju
論文名稱:臺灣地區黑暗觀光戰場遺址地景特性與光譜序列分析
論文名稱(外文):The Dark Tourism of Battlefield Heritage in Taiwan: A Spectrum Analysis of Landscape Characteristics
指導教授:鄭勝華鄭勝華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Flora Sheng-Hua
口試委員:王秋原薛益忠吳連賞李銘輝鄭勝華
口試委員(外文):Wang, Chiu-YuanHsueh, Yi-ChungWu, Lien-ShengLee, Ming-HueiCheng, Flora Sheng-Hua
口試日期:2011-12-02
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:地學研究所博士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:地理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:319
中文關鍵詞:歷史地理學地緣政治學政治經濟學空間分布遊客認知遊客行為決策過程
外文關鍵詞:historical geographygeopoliticspolitical economyspatial distributiontourist cognitiontourist behaviordecision-making process
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本研究試圖由歷史地理學及地緣政治學的研究取向著手,探討臺灣自17世紀至今,400年來歷經明鄭、清領、日治及中華民國等時期,在抵禦殖民侵略及內戰矛盾的緊張狀況下,發生激戰的背景、以及遺留至今的重要戰場遺址。本研究透過探討戰場遺址觀光地景與觀光活動的供應面及需求面的主要指標,建立臺灣地區戰場遺址黑暗觀光地景的光譜序列模式。
透過文獻與田野調查,掌握各時期的主要黑暗觀光地景有:1. 發生在西元1661-1662年(明永曆15-16年)鄭成功與荷蘭人激戰的古戰場,即今臺南市安平區安平古堡與赤崁樓地區;2. 發生在西元1884-1885年(清光緒10-11年)清法戰爭時期的古戰場,今基隆市清法戰爭園區及基隆獅球嶺、二沙灣砲台等區;3. 發生在西元1930年(民國19年)臺灣日治時期的古戰場,今南投縣日治時期霧社地區賽德克族人抗日的古戰場;以及4. 發生在西元1949年(民國38年)國共在金門古寧頭海灘及高地肉搏激戰的戰場。
本研究以問卷調查及深入訪談等質性研究輔以量化研究,獲得各黑暗觀光地景的遊客在需求面的認知、行為決策與資訊場級分析,以及各相關公部門、私(民間)部門在供應面的規劃特性。基本上,遊客對戰場遺址黑暗觀光的需求動機,以郊遊形式、順道而來的比例居高;四個研究樣區遊客,平均約三成遊客的主要動機是憑弔戰場黑暗地景,或確認遺址的區位、或掌握戰史資料、或憑弔古戰場景象、或了解當時軍人紮營地所在、或憑弔軍人墓園等。
戰場觀光地景間行為決策的優弱透過資訊場的比較,可分為3種資訊場級:臺南安平古堡為高資訊場級,是最知名的戰場遺址,金門古寧頭戰場、南投霧社抗日紀念區為中資訊場級,基隆二沙灣砲台及清法戰爭紀念園區,為低資訊場級,其知名度最低。至於各地景的觀光吸引圈除了金門古寧頭是以臺灣北部及南部遊客為主,其他三地景皆以所在區域的遊客最多,區位的易達性及對地景的認知高為吸引遊客到訪主要因素。
在公部門供應面的規劃上,四個黑暗地景皆在特定的時間舉辦追思或紀念活動,提供居民及遊客認識過去歷史的機會。私(民間)部門的推廣部份,四個地區的文史工作團體皆與公部門共同配合相關的活動,其中以臺南市財團法人安平文教基金會、基隆市駱駝志工協會與雞籠文史協進會,皆與公部門共同熱烈推動戰場遺址觀光活動。
本研究透過供給面與需求面的調查結果,發現四個研究樣區可對應到Miles (2002)及Stone (2006)提出的「黑暗觀光地景供給及遊客體驗序列」,依此序列:明鄭時期的臺南安平古堡戰場遺址,因為距今時間尺度最久遠(約350年),又舉辦鄭成功「文化節」等娛樂性活動,政治影響與意識形態趨低,已傾向光明(light)的黑暗觀光地景;而距今約125年的清法基隆二沙灣砲台及清法戰爭墓園區等,低度的觀光設施、高度的戰場識覺,仍處在較黑暗(darker)的地景;至於戰爭發生距今僅80年的南投霧社抗日紀念區及60年的金門古寧頭戰場,相對較短的時間尺度、很強的位置真實性與教育性,高度的政治影響與意識形態,因此二者皆傾向最黑暗(darkest)的觀光地景體驗。此黑暗觀光序列的分析成果有助於規劃臺灣地區戰場遺址觀光地景的整體架構、相關法規的制定原則、以及協助地方社群參與地景發展與解說教育的推廣工作等。
This study uses the theory of historical geography and geopolitics to analyze the battlefield heritages through the Ming Cheng, Qing, Japanese, and Republic of China in Taiwan from the 17th century to the present. Colonial invasions and civil war created the context of fierce fighting while shaping important battlefield heritage landscapes in Taiwan. The objective of this research was to understand the supply and demand facets of battlefield heritage landscapes. The dark tourism spectrum of battlefield heritage in Taiwan was also constructed.
Literature review and fieldwork were conducted to grasp major dark tourism attractions in different periods: 1. the ancient battlefield between Dutch and Cheng in 1641-42, they are nowadays Anping Fort and Chik-kan Tower in Anping District, Tainan city. 2. the ancient battlefield of the Sino-French War in 1884-85, they are nowadays Sino-French War Relic, Shihciouling and Ershawan Fortification, etc. 3. The ancient battlefield during the Japanese colonial period in 1930, which against by Seediq in Wushe area, Nantou. 4. The battlefield and bayonet fighting in Kinmen Guningtou beach and plateau between the Nationalists and the Communists in 1949.
Furthermore, this research adopted quantitative questionnaire survey and qualitative in-depth interviews in order to gather data of the cognition, behavior decision-making process of tourists and to analyze the level of information fields of the dark attractions on demand side. The planning characteristics of the public and private sectors of the supply side were also analyzed. In general, high percentages of the tourist motivation were found in the form of picnic or side tour trips of the attractions. There were about 30% who were seeking for visit battlefield dark attractions, to confirm the location of the heritages, to grasp the history materials, to visit ancient battlefield landscapes, to visit the military ruins of the past, or to visit the military cemetery.
Three levels were distinguished through a comparison of the available breadth and depth of information for battlefield attractions. Tainan Anping Fort was considered at high information level; it is the most famous heritage battlefield. Kinmen Guningtou Battlefield and the Nantou Wushe Memorial Sites were considered at a medium level. Keelung Ershawan Fortification and The Sino-French War Relic were at a low information level; this is indicated in its low popularity. In terms of tourist flows, the most tourists were from intra-region areas in all of the research samples, in addition to Kinmen Guningtou. Tourists to Guningtou were mainly from the north and south of Taiwan, where the accessibility and awareness of the attractions were the main factors of the tourist flow.
As for the supply side of planning in public sectors, memorial activities were held on special dates in four research sample areas. They offered opportunities for residents and tourists to know the site histories. The study found that private sector groups assisted in the battlefield heritage activities. The Anping Cultural Education Foundation in Tainan, the Camel Volunteer Association and the Keelung History Association all had high interaction levels with the public sectors.
The survey indicates that four sample areas correspond well to the dark tourism demand and experience spectrum as proposed by Miles (2002) and Stone (2006). The Fort Anping battle site (today in Tainan), dating back about 350 years to General Cheng of Ming China, held a Cheng "Cultural Festival" and other recreational activities; its political influence and ideological trends are low, tending to be a light rather than dark attraction (site associated with trauma). Dating back about 125 years ago, Ershawan Fortification and The Sino-French War Relic in Keelung have low levels of tourism facilities and a high degree of battlefield perception; it is still a relatively dark (Darker) attraction (where disaster and tragedy actually occurred). The outbreak of war only 80 years ago at Wushe Memorial Park in Nantou, and about 60 years ago at Kinmen Guningtou Battlefield, are relatively short time scales. They both have a strong position of authenticity and educational value, as well as a high political influence and ideology, so these two tendencies are associated with the darkest (Darkest) tourist attraction experience (virtual recreations of disaster sites). The results of sequence analysis of dark tourism can help shape the battlefield sites as tourist attractions in Taiwan's overall framework, the formulation of the principles of relevant laws and regulations, and also help local communities develop attractions in the promotion of education and interpretation work.
中文摘要 ........................ i
英文摘要 ........................ iii
誌謝辭 .......................... vi
內容目錄 ......................... vii
表目錄 .......................... ix
圖目錄 .......................... xiii
第一章  緒論...................... 1
  第一節  研究動機與目的............... 1
  第二節  理論架構與文獻回顧............. 4
  第三節  研究流程與研究方法............. 24
  第四節  研究區域.................. 29
第二章  歐洲殖民時期戰場遺址地景特性與吸引圈分析.... 31
  第一節  戰場遺址發展脈絡.............. 31
  第二節  遺址地景區位特性.............. 46
  第三節  公部門與私部門黑暗觀光規劃分析....... 52
  第四節  地景吸引圈與遊客戰場認知分析........ 87
       小結.................... 104
第三章  日治時期戰場遺址地景特性與吸引圈分析...... 107
  第一節  戰場遺址發展脈絡.............. 107
  第二節  遺址地景區位特性.............. 122
  第三節  公部門與私部門黑暗觀光規劃分析....... 128
  第四節  地景吸引圈與遊客戰場認知分析........ 141
       小結.................... 149
第四章  民國時期國共戰場遺址地景特性與吸引圈分析.... 151
  第一節  戰場遺址發展脈絡.............. 151
  第二節  遺址地景區位特性.............. 159
  第三節  公部門與私部門黑暗觀光規劃分析....... 162
  第四節  地景吸引圈與遊客戰場認知分析........ 172
       小結.................... 180
第五章  戰場遺址黑暗觀光地景光譜序列分析........ 182
  第一節  臺灣地區戰場遺址遊客需求面分析....... 182
  第二節  臺灣地區戰場遺址地景規劃供應面分析..... 254
  第三節  臺灣地區戰場遺址黑暗觀光地景光譜序列模式建構 267
       小結.................... 273
第六章  結論與建議................... 275
  第一節  結論.................... 275
  第二節  建議.................... 286
參考文獻 .........................289
附錄A 熱蘭遮城戰場遊客問卷................ 301
附錄B 清法戰爭戰場遊客問卷................ 305
附錄C 霧社事件戰場遊客問卷................ 309
附錄D 古寧頭戰場遊客問卷................. 313
附錄E 國防文物及軍事遺址管理實施辦法........... 317
附錄F 古蹟管理維護辦法.................. 318

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1. 蘇一志(2007),地方發展過程中的衝突與折衝:以恆春半島觀光空間之轉化為例,國立臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究學報,14:1-14。
2. 羅惇曧(1973),中法兵事本末,收錄於楊家駱主編中法戰爭文獻彙編三,臺北:鼎文書局。
3. 歐陽鍾玲(2004) ,地理與醫療行為模式,地理研究報告,41:25-48。
4. 焦元輝、李銘輝、樓邦儒(2004),國際連鎖速食餐廳區位選擇之研究--以臺北市麥當勞速食店為例,華岡地理學報,17:197-197。
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6. 彭明輝(1992),歷史地理學與現代中國史學的發展--以史地學報、禹貢半月刊為中心的探討,國立政治大學歷史學系未出版之博士論文。
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10. 姜道章(2004),Historical Geography in China,華岡理科學報,21:103-125。
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