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研究生:黃慧珍
研究生(外文):Hui-Jen Huang
論文名稱:《紐約時報》(The New York Times) 報導總統候選人巴瑞克‧歐巴馬(Barack Hussein Obama)之立場研究
論文名稱(外文):The Survey Of 《The New York Times》Reported To The Presidential Candidate-Barack Hussein Obama
指導教授:鄭貞銘鄭貞銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen-Ming Cheng
口試委員:韋光正樓榕嬌鄭貞銘
口試日期:2012-06-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:美國研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:188
中文關鍵詞:媒體民主化新興數位媒體-網際網路《新聞從業人員倫理2004》《紐約時報》(The New York Times) 核心價值與立場
外文關鍵詞:the Democratization of MediaNew Digital Medias-Internetthe Values of U.S.A.
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:176
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:31
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要

巴瑞克‧歐巴馬( Barack Hussein Obama )於其親自撰寫《無畏的希望》(The Audacity of Hope)一書序言中提及

我的理念、價值觀,與《紐約時報》(The New York Times) 社論篇幅(The Editorial Pages)理念、立場較為接近

公元2008年美國總統大選期間,由小亞瑟‧奧克斯‧莎資伯格(Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr.)擔任發行人的《紐約時報》(The New York Times)報業媒體集團,對美國民主黨非裔美人總統候選人巴瑞克‧歐巴馬( Barack Hussein Obama )所持之立場為何?值得深究!因此,代表《紐約時報》(The New York Times) 報業媒體集團核心立場-社論部門(Editorial Departments)之觀點,重要性不言而喻。

此外,自公元2007年1月8日起,安德魯‧羅森紹(Andrew Rosenthal)擔任《紐約時報》(The New York Times)社論部門(Editorial Departments)監督以及編輯委員會(Editorial Broad)總主編時,與此同時,《紐約時報》(The New York Times)報業媒體集團已從”印刷媒體”轉型為”數位多媒體”新聞態樣。因新興數位媒體(New Digital Medias)-網際網路興起,於“媒體民主化”(the Democratization of Media)時代,《紐約時報》(The New York Times) 報業媒體集團包括由17位各領域專家組成之編輯委員會( Editorial Board)(附錄(一))、外部專欄作者 (Op-Ed Columnist)、讀者來函與外部作者(Letters and Op-Ed Contributor)---等三部門構成-統稱為社論部門(Editorial Departments)之立場,值得細究。尤其,於公元2008年美國總統大選期間,對非裔美人巴瑞克‧歐巴馬( Barack Hussein Obama)所持之立場為何?為本論文最核心部份。

從公元2007年2月10日美國聯邦參議員巴瑞克‧歐巴馬( Barack Hussein Obama),正式宣佈參選公元2008年美國總統大選起,至公元2009年1月20日止。《紐約時報》(The New York Times)報業媒體集團之社論部門(Editorial Departments)撰文與巴瑞克‧歐巴馬(Barack Hussein Obama)有關新聞文章總計1,585篇。且因,編輯委員會(Editorial Board)代表《紐約時報》(The New York Times)報業媒體集團強烈立場,因此,如附錄(二)所示,本研究蒐集編輯委員會(Editorial Board)撰文與巴瑞克‧歐巴馬(Barack Hussein Obama)有關之新聞文章共計292篇。本研究詳加分析其中13篇文章,其內容皆希望巴瑞克‧歐巴馬( Barack Hussein Obama )能詳加說明美國目前所面臨問題,並提出解決問題之方法。

當其時,美國正經歷自公元1930年代經濟大蕭條以來經濟危機。此外,編輯委員會(Editorial Broad)撰文著重全國觀點、全球視野,環繞美國理想(the Idea of America)、美國夢(American Dream)核心價值。此點與巴瑞克‧歐巴馬( Barack Hussein Obama)觀點一致。兩者皆尊重民主、自由、法治(the rule of law)、個人權利、皆相信政府權力應受憲法限制之立憲政府,除此之外,皆崇尚美國基本價值美國夢。 不過,縱使於因新興數位媒體(New Digital Medias)興起,”媒體民主化” (The Democratization of Media)時代。由小亞瑟‧奧克斯‧莎資伯格(Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr.)領導之《紐約時報》(The New York Times)報業媒體集團,將印刷媒體蛻變成數位多媒體網際網路新聞時代。於公元2008年美國總統大選期間,其新聞從業人員,依然須受到《新聞從業人員倫理,2004》(Ethical Journalism, 2004)手冊所規範。均須維持長久以來所建立的公正(Impartial)、真實(Accuracy)、正直(Integrity)、中立(Neutrality)立場。

那麼,於公元2008年美國總統大選期間,對美國總統大選候選人非裔美人巴瑞克‧歐巴馬(Barack Hussein Obama)所持立場為何?此點從公元2008年美國總統大選最後階段,其編輯委員會(Editorial Board) 成員聚集起來投票表決,以編輯委員會(Editorial Board)名義,代表《紐約時報》(The New York Times)報業媒體集團支持巴瑞克‧歐巴馬( Barack Hussein Obama)為美國總統即可視出。


Abstract

Barack Hussein Obama, as a writer of Dreams from My Father and The Audacity of Hope, in his book especially in the prologue of The Audacity of Hope expressed it his views of things corresponded more closely to the Opinion of The New York Times .

Meanwhile, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. had led〈The New York Times Company〉and as a publisher of The New York Times for over decade. In the 2008 Presidential Campaign of the United States, the viewpoints of Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. and The New York Times to the African-American Presidential Candidate-Barack Hussein Obama deserved us pay more attention to it, however, the Editorial Departments of The New York Times stand for The New York Times, so that they deserved us pay more attention too.

Since January 8, 2007, Andrew Rosenthal as a supervisor of the Editorial Departments and as an Editor of Editorial Broad, and the Editorial Departments of The New York Times consist of the Department of Editorial Broad, the Department of Op-Ed Columnist, and the Department of Letters and Op-Ed Contributor. due to the rise of New Digital Medias The New York Times had transferred it’s Print News into Multiply Media-Internet News. Meanwhile, in the era of Democratization of Media, the viewpoints of the Editorial Departments of The New York Times to the Democratic Party Presidential Candidate-Barack Hussein Obama. is the core value of my thesis to academic.

I had analyzed the news of the Editorial Board of The New York Times for 13 out of 292 articles ,and the Editorial Departments of The New York Times reported to
Presidential Candidate-Barack Hussein Obama for 1,585 articles date from February 10, 2007, to January 20, 2009. In general, they suggested Barack Hussein Obama explained clearly about the problems of the United of States of American had faced and how to solve these problems.

Due to the economic crisis since the 1930s Great Depression, However, the articles of Editorial Board of The New York Times more emphasizes the standpoints of National, the prospects of global, the Idea of America, American Dream--
- so on. As mention above in the prologue of The Audacity of Hope Barack Hussein Obama expressed it his views of things corresponded more closely to the Opinion of The New York Times. in other words, they all respected Democracy, Freedom, the rule of law, individual rights, and limited government, they all respected the Idea of America, American Dream. but, the staffs of The New York Times need to accordance with the Ethical Journalism, 2004 in order to maintain the reputation of Impartial, Accuracy, Integrity, Neutrality of The New York Times in the era of Democratization of Media due to the rise of New Digital Medias.

On October 23, 2008, the Editorial Board of The New York Times met together to endorse Barack Hussein Obama as the 44th president of the United States. So that, The New York Times show Impartial, Accuracy, Integrity, Neutrality to the Democratic Party Presidential Candidate-Barack Hussein Obama.

目次

第一章 緒論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
第二節 研究目的-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
第三節 研究範圍與限制-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11

第二章 文獻回顧------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
第一節 新興數位媒體-網際網路興起,與”媒體民主化”(The Democratization of Media)進程-------------------------------------------21
第二節《紐約時報》(The New York Times)之”媒體倫理”(Media Ethic)及影響-------------------------------------------------------26
第三節 社論部門(Editorial Departments)及其(包括新聞部門(Newsroom))所撰寫之文章分析---------------------------------------------30

第三章 創立與”媒體民主化”(The Democratization of Media)進程----------------------------------------------------------------37
第一節 《紐約時報》創立進程-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37
第二節 “媒體民主化”(The Democratization of Media)進程---------------------------------------------------------------------40
第三節 推動《紐約時報》媒體民主化(The Democratization of Media)進程重要人物----------------------------------------------------44

第四章 ”媒體民主化”(The Democratization of Media)時代之《新聞從業人員倫理》(Editorial Journalism)----------------------------49
第一節《新聞從業人員倫理》(Ethical Journalism)------------------------------------------------------------------------------49
第二節 社論部門(Editorial Departments)監督兼任編輯委員會總主編 安德魯‧羅森紹(Andrew Rosenthal)---------------------------------53
第三節 社論部門(Editorial Departments)之其他兩個部門-------------------------------------------------------------------------61

第五章《紐約時報》(The New York Times)撰文分析------------------------------------------------------------------------------71
第一節 編輯委員會(Editorial Board)撰文之新聞文章分析-------------------------------------------------------------------------73
第二節 外部專欄作者(Op-Ed Columnist)撰文分析------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 89
第三節 讀者來函與外部作者(Letters and Op-Ed Contributor)撰文分析------------------------------------------------------------104
第四節 新聞部門(Newsroom)記者珍妮‧史考特(Janny Scott)撰文分析---------------------------------------------------------------123

第六章 結論---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139
第一節 研究心得-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------139
第二節 研究發現-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------148
參考文獻-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------156
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54. Herbert Bob, November 27, 2007, Op-Columnist: Behind the Curtain,《The New York Times》.
55. Herbert Bob, November 3, 2008, Op-Columnist: Beyond Election Day,《The New York Times》.
56. Herbert Bob, November 8, 2008, Op-Columnist: Take a Bow, America,《The New York Times》.
57. Hirshman Linda, December 9, 2008, Op-Contributor: Where Are the New Jobs for Women?《The New York Times》.
58. Hulse Carl, January 19, 2009, Obama Is Sworn In as the 44th President, 《The New York Times》.
59. Kantor Judi, July 30, 2008, Teaching Law, Testing Ideas, Obama Stood Slightly Apart,《The New York Times》.
60. Kantor Judi, October 25, 2008, Barack Obama,Forever Sizing Up,《The New York Times》.
61. Kawakami Priscilla, Jan. 14, 2009, Letters: Re” Classrooms Find Lessons in Obama's Inauguration,《The New York Times》.
62. Kennedy Caroline, January 27, 2008, Op-Contributor: A President Like My Father,《The New York Times》.
63. Kirkpatrick, David D., McIntire Mike and Zeleny Jeff , July 17, 2007, Obama’s Camp Cultivates Crop in Small Donors,
《The New York Times》.
64. Levey Jesse, June 21, 2008, Letters: Campaign Dollars: Obama’s New Way, 《The New York Times》.
65. Levinson Matt, Jan. 14, 2009, Letters: Re ''Classrooms Find Lessons in Obama's Inauguration'' ,《The New York Times》.
66. Luo Michael,Small donations add up for Obama,《The New York Times》.
67. Marasciullo Paul, October 25, 2008, Letters: Reaction to the Obama Endorsement,《The New York Times》.
68. May Christopher, October 25, 2008, Letters: Reaction to the Obama Endorsement,《The New York Times》.
69. Miller, Claire Cain, November 7, 2008, How Obama’s Internet Campaign Changed Politics,《The New York Times》.
70. Miller, Claire Cain, November 7, 2008, How Obama’s Internet Campaign Changed Politics,《The New York Times》.
71. Morris Johnson, June 21, 2008, Letters: Campaign Dollars: Obama’s New Way,《The New York Times》.
72. Morrison Sharon, October 25, 2008, Letters: Reaction to the Obama Endorsement,《The New York Times》.
73. Nagoureny Adam & Zeleny Jeff, February 11,2007, Obama Formally Enters Presidetial Race,《The New York Times》.
74. Nagoureny Adam, August 28, 2008, Obama wins historic nomination,《The New York Times》.
75. Nagoureny Adam, November 4, 2008, Obama Wins Election; McCain Loses as Bush Legacy Is Rejected,《The New York Times》.
76. Nagourney Adam , November 4, 2008, Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls,《The New York Times》.
77. Nagourney Adam and Zeleny Jeff , August 23, 2008, Obama Chooses Biden as Running Mate,《The New York Times》.
78. Obama, Barack Hussein, January 2010, State of the Union Address, White House U. S. A.
79. Obama, Barack Hussein, July 14, 2008, Op-Contributor: My Plan for Iraq,《The New York Times》.
80. Porter Eduardo, March 31, 2008,Editorial: Race and the Social Contract,《The New York Times》.
81. Powell Michael, May 4, 2008, A Fiery Theology Under Fire,《The New York Times》.
82. Roosevelt Curtis, Jan. 14, 2009, Letters: Inauguration Day: Obama and History, 《The New York Times》.
83. Rosenthal Andrew & Readers,September 17,24~28, 2007, Talk to The Times: Editorial Page Editor Andrew Rosenthal,《The
New York Times》.
84. Rudner Bonnie, October 25, 2008, Letters: Reaction to the Obama Endorsement,《The New York Times》.
85. Samura Nicole, October 25, 2008, Letters: Reaction to the Obama Endorsement, 《The New York Times》.
86. Scott Janny, July 30, 2007, In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd,《The New York Times》.
87. Scott Janny, March 13, 2008, Obama's mother had a varied international career,《The New York Times》.
88. Scott Janny, March 14, 2008, A Free-Spirited Wanderer Who Set Obama’s Path,《The New York Times》.
89. Scott Janny, May 18, 2008, The Story of Obama, Written by Obama,《The New York Times》.
90. Scott Janny, September 9, 2007,In 2000, a Streetwise Veteran Schooled a Bold Young Obama,《The New York Times》.
91. Seelye, Katharine Q., December 23, 2008, Obama to Take Oath on Same Bible as Lincoln,《The New York Times》.
92. Staples Brent , February 11, 2007, Editorial: Decoding the Debate Over the Blackness of Barack Obama,《The New York
Times》.
93. Steinem Gloria, January 8, 2008, Op-Contributor: Women Are Never Front-Runners,《The New York Times》.
94. Stross Randall, December 2, 2007, For the 2008 Race, Google Is a Crucial Constituency,《The New York Times》.
95. Viteritti John A., October 25, 2008, Letters: Reaction to the Obama Endorsement, 《The New York Times》.
96. Williams Juan, November 30, 2007, Op-Contributor:Obama’s Color Line,《The New York Times》.
97. Yuan Jada, October 27, 2009, Times Publisher Compares Print Media to the Titanic, Daily Intel Main.
98. Zeleney Jeff, August 26, 2008, Once a Convention Outsider, Obama Navigated a Path to the Marquee,《The New York Times》.
99. Zeleny Jeff, April 17, 2008, Book Sales Lifted Obamas’ Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million,《The New York Times》.
100. Zeleny Jeff, January 21, 2009, I Really Do Swear, Faithfully: Obama and Roberts Try Again,《The New York Times》.
101. Zeleny Jeff, January 7, 2009, Obama Digs In for His BlackBerry,《The New York Times》.


Remarks
1. Barack Hussein Obama, 2004, The Audacity of Hope-Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention.
2. Barack Hussein Obama, August 29, 2008, at the Democratic National Convention in Denver.
3. Barack Hussein Obama, Jennuary 20, 2009, President Barack Obama’s Inaugural Address.Washington D C..
4. Barack Hussein Obama, November 4, 2008, Yes We Can, Barack Hussein Obama’s Vicotory Speech, Chicago.
5. Michael K. Powell, Feruary 27, 2002, The Perfect Storm, NorthermVirginia Technology Council Policymakers Series
Breakfast Tysons Corner, Virginia.


Websites
1. http://www.ait.org.tw.
2. http:// www. fccinfo@fcc.gov.
3. http://www.nytimes.com
4. http://www.Nielsen NetView, 2,2010
5. http://usinfo.state.gov/pub/ejournalusa.html
6. http://www.usinfo.state.gov/, 2006


Videos
1. Discovery Channel Video, War And Civilization-Blood And Iron,協和國際
2. Discovery Channel Video, Super Structurre Of America:Reach For The Sky,協和國際.


中文參考文獻
中文書籍
1. Hope Works著,AnthonyW. Sariti‧Jenny Ang Lu 英文編審,朱邦彥,朱怡潔,林雨蒨,柯乃瑜翻譯,2008,歐巴馬傳奇(Chanfe We Can
Believe In),繁星多媒體股份有限公司,頁69~77。
2. 小泉修著,吳志宏審訂,羅美華譯,2003,你不可不知的網際網路,世茂出版社,頁32~33。
3. 林立樹,2006,America,五南圖書出版股份有限公司,頁252。
4. 約翰‧ W‧約翰遜,論民主文集(8)自由媒體的作用,美國國務院國際信息局。
5. 格雷格‧羅素,《論民主文集》(2)憲政:美國及其它,美國國務院國際信息局。
6. 張世賢 & 陳恒鈞合著,1999,比較政府, 五南圖書出版公司,頁141~142。
7. 梅爾文·烏羅夫斯基,《論民主文集》(1)引言:民主制度的根本原則,美國國務院國際信息局。
8. 許志雄,2000,憲法秩序之變動,元照出版公司,頁351。
9. 鄭貞銘,民90,建立新聞傳媒的公信力,人文學報,頁45~55。
10. 鄭貞銘,民95,政媒分際與專業操守,人文學報,頁1~9。


中文報紙&雜誌
張 旻,1, 19, 2001,網路錢在燒 媒體冰風暴,新台灣雜誌,第252期。
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