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研究生:黃偉雄
研究生(外文):Huang, Wei-hsiung
論文名稱:論休謨的懷疑論——從知識論的觀點
論文名稱(外文):On Hume’s Scepticism: From the Epistemological Point of View
指導教授:林正弘林正弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Cheng-hung
口試委員:郭博文林照田石朝穎林從一
口試委員(外文):Kuo, Po-wenLin, Chao-tienShyr, Jau-yingLin, Chung-i
口試日期:2012-06-28
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:哲學系
學門:人文學門
學類:哲學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:休謨懷疑論知識論自然論
外文關鍵詞:HumeScepticismEpistemology
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 下載下載:26
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
近代英國經驗論代表哲學家休謨(David Hume)哲學的起點是建立在人性的研究上,嘗試在一全新的基礎上,建立一個完整的科學體系,這個科學體系就是一「人的科學」,以做為其他科學的牢固基礎。而我們在建立這一「人的科學」所能給出的唯一牢固基礎,必須置於經驗和觀察之上。休謨據此用實驗方法詳細的研究人類知性,根據每一或然推斷進行推理,得到印象和觀念。但休謨指出,由於每一或然推斷除了感覺對象的原始不確定性之外,由於官能的弱化作用,使得理性產生新的懷疑,基於或然推斷對於真實的評斷及感官的可靠性所產生的失誤。由於休謨堅持人類一切的知識均求自知覺,而知覺的經驗特性,顯然的必然會產生上述的結果。因此許多哲學家認為休謨是一個懷疑論者。
本論文嘗試從知識論的觀點來看,欲詳細探究休謨的懷疑論(Scepticism)究竟是那一種性質的懷疑論?在那一個理解層次上可以成立?希望從方法論上,對於前賢關於休謨的懷疑論的觀點,進行後設研究,以求對於休謨的懷疑論各種看法,經由哲學分析後,進一步獲得釐清。從精讀休謨的原典開始,對於其關於知識上的懷疑論的各種論點,參酌當代英美哲學行家重要的詮釋觀點,進行解讀,並嘗試評述這些論證。
哲學懷疑的傳統標的有四:「關於外在世界的存在」、「我們的關於他人心靈的知識」、「歸納的證明」及「過去的真實性」,其中休謨的論證大部份涉及「關於外在世界的存在」及「歸納的證明」。本論文擬就休謨對於知識論的設想及前述懷疑論的論題,考量各家如何說明,藉以討論其論證成立的理據是否合理。

This essay attempts to describe the complex dialectical interplay among the contrasting rational, sceptical and naturalist elements that appear in Hume’s philosophy, ie. His famous work: Treatise of Human Nature. At the same time we shall try to show that, contrary to Hume’s own evaluation of that section, it is the skeptical element, in which the unreliability of reason is supposedly demonstrated as opposed to remain hidden from us, that deserves to explore by us. With these two goals in mind and in order to make it easier for us to follow the inevitable twists and turns of the dialectic, we have introduce Stroud, Strawson and Pappas’s view about Hume’s skepticism, try to give a new explanation from a epistemological point of view.
目錄

第一章 導言…………………………………………………………1
第二章 認定休謨是嚴格懷疑論的論證……………………………16
第三章 認定休謨是自然論的論證…………………………………27
第四章 認定休謨是溫和懷疑論的論證……………………………58
第五章 休謨的懷疑論在知識論上的型態…………………………74
第六章 結論…………………………………………………………89
參考書目………………………………………………………………95

參考書目
〔休謨原著〕
Hume, David, A Treatise of Human Nature, ed. D. F. Norton and M. J. Norton, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.
-- -, An Abstract of A Treatise of Human Nature 1740 : a Pamphlet Hitherto Unknown. Ed. John Maynard Keyes and Piero Sraffa, Bristol : Thoemmes , 1990.
-- -, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding . A Critical Edition. ed. Tom L. Beauchamp. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.
-- -, Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals. 3rd ed. With text revised and notes by P. H. Nidditch, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
-- -, The Philosophical Works. Ed. Thomas Hill Green, and Thomas Hodge Grose, London: Aalen, Scientia Verlag, 1964.
大衛.休謨,《人性論》,石碧珠譯,北京:中國社會科學出版社, 2009。
——,《論道德原理.論人類理智》,周曉亮譯,南京:譯林出版社,2010。
〔相關文獻〕
Ayer, Alfred J. The Problem of Knowledge. Baltimore: Pelican, 1956.
-- -,Hume. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1979.
Anderson, Robert Fendel. Hume’s First Principles. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.
Beauchamp, Tom L. ed. Philosophical Problem of Causation. California: Dickenson Publishing Company, 1974.
Bennett, Jonathan Francis. Locke, Berkeley, Hume: Central Themes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.
Bricke, John. Hume’s Philosophy of Mind. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Broadie, Alexander. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment. Cambridge, U.K. : Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Chappell, V. C. ed. Hume: A Collection of Critical Essays. New York: Doubleday, 1966.
Church, Ralph Withington. Hume’s Theory of the Understanding. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.
Danford, John W. David Hume and The Problem of Reason: Recovering The Human Sciences. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Dicker, Georges. Hume’s Epistemology and Metaphysics. London: Routledge, 1998.
Fieser, James ed. Early Responses to Hume's Metaphysical and Epistemological Writings. Bristol: Thoemmes, 2000
Flage, Daniel E. David Hume’s Theory of Mind. London: Routledge, 1990.
Flew, Antony. Hume's Philosophy of Belief: A Study of His First Inquiry. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961.
Fogelin, R. J. Hume's Skepticism in the Treatise of Human Nature. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.
-- -,Hume’s Skeptical Crisis: A Textual Study, New York : Oxford UP, 2009.
Frasca-Spada. Marina, Space and the Self in Hume's Treatise. Cambridge, U.K. : Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Garrett, Don. Cognition and Commitment in Hume's Philosophy. New York : Oxford UP, 1997.
Greco, John ed. The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism. New York : Oxford UP, 2008.
Hookway, Christopher. Scepticism. London: Routledge, 1990.
Howson, Colin. Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief. Oxford: Clarendon Press , 2000.
Johnson, Oliver A. The Mind of David Hume: a Companion to Book I of A Treatise of Human Nature. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
Kemp Smith, Norman. The Philosophy of David Hume. London: MacMillan, 1949.
Kruse, Frederik Vinding. Hume's Philosophy in his Principal Work, a Treatise of Human Nature, and in His Essays. Bristol, [Eng.]: Thoemmes , 1990.
Lammenranta, Markus. “The Pyrrhonian Problematic.” The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism. Ed. John Greco. New York : Oxford UP, 2008.
Livingston, Donald W. Hume's Philosophy of Common Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
Livingston, Donald W, and James T. King, eds. Hume : a Re-evaluation, New York : Fordham University Press, 1976.
Lehrer, Keith. Analysis and Metaphysics : Essays in Honor of R. M. Chisholm, Dordrecht, Holland : D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1975.
Morice, G. P. David Hume : Bicentenary Papers. Austin : University of Texas Press, 1977.
Mounce, H. O. Hume’s Naturalism. London: Routledge, 1999.
Norton, David Fate ed. The Cambridge Companion to Hume. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Norton, David Fate. David Hume, Common-sense Moralist, Sceptical Metaphysician, Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1982.
Noxon, James H. Hume's Philosophical Development / a Study of his Methods, Oxford ; New York : Clarendon Press, 1973.
Owen, David. Hume's Reason. Oxford : Oxford UP, 1999.
Pears, David Francis. Hume's System : an Examination of the First Book of his Treatise. Oxford : Oxford UP, 1990.
Penelhum, Terence. David Hume: An Introduction to his Philosophical System. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue UP, 1992.
Pappas, George S. “Some Forms of Epistemological Scepticism.” Essays on knowledge and justification. Eds. Pappas, George S. and Marshall Swain Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell UP, 1978
Price, H. H. Hume's Theory of the External World. Oxford:The Clarendon press, 1940.
Reid, Thomas. The Works of Thomas Reid. Ed. Sir William Hamilton. Bristol, England : Thoemmes Press, 1994.
Reid, Thomas. Reid’s Works. Ed. Dugald Stewart. Charlestown : Samuel Etheridge, 1813.
Robison, Wade L. ”David Hume: Naturalist and Meta-sceptic.” Hume : a Re-evaluation. Ed. Donald W. Livingston and James T. King. New York : Fordham UP, 1976.
Schilpp, Paul Arthur. ed. The Philosophy of Karl Popper. Northwestern University & Southern illinois University, 1974.
Slote, Michael A. Reason and Scepticism. London: Routledge, 1970.
Strawson, Galen. The Secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
Strawson, P. F. Skepticism and Naturalism: Some Varieties. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 1985.
Stroud, Barry. Hume. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977.
-¬- -, The Significance of Philosophical Skepticism. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1984.
Tweyman, Stanley. David Hume : Critical Assessments. London ; New York : Routledge, 1995.
Waxman, Wayne. Hume's Theory of Consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Zabeeh, Farhang. Hume, Precursor of Modern Empiricism : An Analysis of his Opinions on Meaning, Metaphysics, Logic and Mathematics. The Hague : Nijhoff, 1973.
艾耶爾,《休謨》,李瑞全譯,台北:聯經,1983。
周曉亮,《休謨及其人性哲學》,北京:社科,1996。
麥克納,《休謨》,黃懿梅譯,台北:長橋,1979。
曹劍波,《知識與語境:當代西方知識論對懷疑主義難題解答》,上海:上海人民出版社,2009。

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