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研究生:嚴烽彰
研究生(外文):Fong-Chang Yen
論文名稱:邊緣特性對景觀變遷影響之研究-以台中大肚山為例
論文名稱(外文):The effect of edge characteristic on landscape change-a case study in Dadushan, Taichung
指導教授:張琪如張琪如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Ru Chang
口試委員:邱祈榮林朝欽
口試委員(外文):Chyi-Rong ChiouChau-Chin Lin
口試日期:2012-06-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:景觀學系
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:景觀設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:201
中文關鍵詞:大黍入侵林火干擾相鄰邊緣景觀變遷碎形維度
外文關鍵詞:Panicum maximum invasionforest fire disturbanceadjacent to the edgelandscape changesfractal dimension
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景觀生態學主要在於了解大區域範圍的生態功能,與推測生態系統、棲地,或群落的空間配置所帶來的生態影響。空間配置可以景觀結構來描述,即組成景觀的元素類型、多樣性及空間關係。邊緣通常是自然產生在兩個生態群落的介面上,自然過程形成的嵌塊體通常是不規則的複雜形狀,而人為形成的嵌塊體則反之。目前的文獻中討論,邊緣效應的表現與嵌塊體形狀之間存在著重要的關係,邊緣彎延多曲折的形狀,容易促進內部與周邊環境的相互作用,因此,一些研究認為圓形嵌塊體,應該會比線性嵌塊體能更佳的保護內部棲地。但是嵌塊體形狀、邊緣特徵(形狀、寬度、穿透性等)對生態過程的影響目前都僅止於邏輯推論,實際的案例研究、操作尚很缺乏。
台中大肚山台地為一明顯受人為與自然干擾影響之區域,台中地區快速發展擴張,所以聯絡道路鋪設的需求讓許多的交通幹道經過此地,進入大肚山台地之人為活動亦逐日增加,此外,早期因人為需求而引入大黍栽植,在乾濕季分明的氣候條件下,助長大黍引發火燒進而入侵相鄰的相思樹林。在上述人為嵌塊體與自然嵌塊體交錯,以及相鄰嵌塊體之間有明顯相互作用的景觀空間配置之下,使火燒的機率上升不少。所以是探討不同土地利用類型之相鄰邊緣特性,如何影響嵌塊體之間相互作用的最佳研究區域。
本研究探討台中大肚山台地不同類型之相鄰邊緣景觀變遷,比較1977、1985、1997、2002年間的土地利用類型,將土地利用類型分為森林、疏林、草生地、農耕地、道路、開發地、墳墓、裸露地等八種,以GIS整理數化每一年度的邊緣相鄰情況,並逐一檢視到下一個年度後在邊緣兩旁的土地利用發生了什麼改變,歸納出不同土地利用相鄰類型的變遷趨勢。同時以碎形維度檢驗邊緣型狀之複雜度對於不同類型之相鄰邊緣的景觀變遷,是否有影響。
結果發現森林、疏林、草生地與農耕地容易受到相鄰嵌塊體的變遷影響,而跟著一起變遷,(1)森林/ 疏林、森林/ 草生地與疏林/ 草生地之邊緣兩側大多都會變遷為草生地,(2)農耕地/ 道路、農耕地/ 開發地之邊緣兩側容易與相鄰嵌塊體一起變遷為道路或開發地;道路、開發地與墳墓則是不容易受到相鄰嵌塊體的影響,幾乎都能維持原貌不變。另外,兩嵌塊體之相鄰長度越長,越容易互相影響;而碎形維度對於景觀變遷的影響則不顯著。
綜合上述,整體大肚山台地之景觀變遷,明顯受景觀空間配置(結構)之影響,相鄰嵌塊體之間有明顯的相互作用,尤其是森林與疏林變遷為草生地的變遷趨勢最為明顯,因為大黍易引發火燒而波及鄰近的相思樹林。所以應該避免相思樹林與大黍相鄰,可以設置防火帶等緩衝空間,並且改善相思樹林邊緣的植生狀況,增加林下的蔭蔽程度。因為禾本科的大黍生長需要充足的日光照射,所以可以減少大黍生長於相思樹林之間的機會,減少枯萎形成的輕質燃料量累積於相思樹林之中。
Landscape ecology studies the ecological functions of the regional and the ecological impacts of ecosystem, habitat, or community space configuration. Space configuration can be described by landscape structure, including the landscape composition, diversity and spatial relationships. Edges are usually embedded in the interface of two ecological communities. Naturally formed patches are usually irregular and have complex shapes, and human formed patches usually have more simple shapes. There has been discussion on the relationships between edge effects and patch shape, such as curved edges being easier to promote the interaction of the internal of patches and the surrounding environment. Therefore, some researchers believe that round patches provide better physical protection of internal habitat. However, the effects of edge characteristics on ecological processes have limited empirical studies to support such claims.
The Dadu platform in Taichung is significantly affected by anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Rapid development and expansion of Taichung City have led to many major roads passing through Dadu tableland. Also, (2)early human introduction of Panicum maximum planting, contributed to frequent Panicum maximum caused the fire, under the distinct wet and dry season weather conditions have resulting in the invasion of adjacent Acacia confuse forests, such a mosaic of man-made patches and natural patches increases interactions between landscape patches and increases the probability of fire spread, and offers a case study to explore the dynamics between different land uses adjacencies to.
This study investigated the the Taichung Dadu tableland of different types of adjacent edge of the landscape changes, the comparison between 1977, 1985, 1997, 2002 years of land use types, land use types are divided into forest, sparse forest, grassland, farmland, roads, developed land, graveyard, uncovered land, finishing for each year of the edge adjacent to the eight kinds by the GIS, and one by one view to the edge on both sides of the land use of what might have changed in the next year, summed up the different land uses adjacent to the type of the changing trend. The effect of complexity of the edge on landscape changes is tested using fractal dimension.
The results showed that forest, sparse forest, grassland and farmland are vulnerable to the influence of adjacent patch changes, such as (1)if the patch adjacent to sparse forest changes to grassland, sparse forest patch is also easily changed to grassland; (2)roads, developed land and graveyard aren’t susceptible to the influence of adjacent patches, and is almost able to maintain the original type. In addition, the longer the length of the edge, the more likely influence each other; the effect of fractal dimension on landscape change isn’t significant.
Overall the Dadu tableland landscape change is significantly affected by landscape spatial configuration (structure). The interaction between adjacent patches is most obvious on the edges between forest, sparse forest and grassland, because Panicum maximum easily causes fire spread to the neighboring Acacia confusa. So Acacia confusa and Panicum maximum adjacency should be avoided, and the buffer space can beset with fire breaks. The vegetation on Acacia confusa edges, can also be increase to enhance shading of the understory, and reduce the growth of Panicum maximum.
第一章 緒論---------------------------------------------------------1-1
第二章 文獻回顧
第一節 景觀變遷---------------------------------------------------------2-1
第二節 景觀結構---------------------------------------------------------2-3
第三節 邊緣效應---------------------------------------------------------2-5
第四節 林火---------------------------------------------------------------2-9
第五節 入侵植物--------------------------------------------------------2-11
第六節 台中大肚山台地相關研究----------------------------------2-13
第三章-研究方法
第一節 研究範圍---------------------------------------------------------3-1
第二節 研究資料---------------------------------------------------------3-2
第三節 操作方法---------------------------------------------------------3-3
第四章 研究結果
第一節 整體景觀邊緣變遷---------------------------------------------4-1
第二節 各個土地利用類型邊緣之變遷
一、 森林-----------------------------------------------------------4-5
二、 疏林-----------------------------------------------------------4-19
三、 草生地---------------------------------------------------------4-34
四、 農耕地---------------------------------------------------------4-51
五、 道路-----------------------------------------------------------4-68
六、 開發地---------------------------------------------------------4-81
七、 墳墓-----------------------------------------------------------4-94
八、 裸露地---------------------------------------------------------4-105
第五章 討論與建議
第一節 結果討論
一、 1977-2002 年整體邊緣長度變化-------------------------------------5-1
二、 邊緣長度減短之土地利用類型-----------------------------------------5-4
三、 邊緣長度增長之土地利用類型-----------------------------------------5-7
四、 邊緣長度變化不明顯之土地利用類型------------------------------------5-9
五、 邊緣與變遷之相關性-----------------------------------------------5-12
六、 邊緣長度與面積變化之關係------------------------------------------5-14
第二節 研究建議-----------------------------------------------------5-19
參考文獻-----------------------------------------------------------6-1
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邱祈榮、林朝欽、曾仁鍵、薛怡珍(2005),大肚山台地地景變遷之分析,《第三屆林火生態與管理研討會論文集》p.25-51,農委會林務局、農委會林業試驗所、國立臺灣大學森林環環境暨資源學系
邱祈榮、薛怡珍、劉宇安、賴彥任(2012),台中大肚山台地土地利用及地覆變化趨勢之分析,都市與計畫(vol.39-1)p.25-50
陳秋正(1996),天竺草族群生態之研究,國立中興大學植物學系, 碩士論文
張集豪、章錦瑜(2004),大肚山地區火燒與植被關係之研究,林業研究季刊(vol.26-4)p.1-10
章錦瑜、陳明義(1995),野火對中山高速公路沿線綠帶之影響,中華林學季刊(vol.28-1)p.69-79
曾仁鍵(2004),衛星影像於大肚山地區植被光譜變遷之監測,國立臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所, 碩士論文
鄔建國(2003),景觀生態學-格局、過程、尺度與等級,五南圖書出版股份有限公司
楊國禎、林笈克(2001),大肚山植被的變遷(1904年迄今),中部地區自然與人文互動系列議題研討會(一)p.109
蔡智豪(2005),台中大肚山竹坑北坑樣帶四年內植群分布與環境因子相關性之研究,靜宜大學生態學系, 碩士論文
劉宇安(2009),台中大肚山地區土地利用變遷分析之研究,國立臺灣大學生物資源暨農學院森林環境暨資源學系, 碩士論文
盧彥克(2008),大肚山台地的地景變遷研究,逢甲大學都市計畫學系碩士班, 碩士論文
賴國祥(2005),合歡北峰臺灣二葉松林火燒後之天然更新,特有生物研究(vol.7-1)p.61-68
賴靖融(2003),環山火燒跡地植群變化之研究,國立中興大學森林學研究所, 碩士論文
薛怡珍、張國忠(2001),森林地景生態結構與功能,臺灣林業(vol.7-4)p.2-19
顏添明、吳景揚(2004),南投林區林火影響因子之探討,林業研究季刊(vol.26-1)p.47-60
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1. 顏添明、吳景揚(2004),南投林區林火影響因子之探討,林業研究季刊(vol.26-1)p.47-60
2. 薛怡珍、張國忠(2001),森林地景生態結構與功能,臺灣林業(vol.7-4)p.2-19
3. 賴國祥(2005),合歡北峰臺灣二葉松林火燒後之天然更新,特有生物研究(vol.7-1)p.61-68
4. 張集豪、章錦瑜(2004),大肚山地區火燒與植被關係之研究,林業研究季刊(vol.26-4)p.1-10
5. 章錦瑜、陳明義(1995),野火對中山高速公路沿線綠帶之影響,中華林學季刊(vol.28-1)p.69-79
6. 林朝欽、邱祈榮、陳明義、蕭其文、曾仁鍵(2005),大肚山地區林火危險預測模式之推導,中華林學季刊(vol.38-1)p.83-94
7. 林朝欽、黃清吟(2006),火燒干擾對森林生態系之影響與對策,林業研究專訊(vol.13-5)p.14-17
8. 林朝欽、邱祈榮、周巧盈(2005),火燒嚴重度之界定與評估: 以武陵森林火災為例,臺灣林業科學(vol.23-3)p.203-213
9. 林朝欽(1999),國有林大甲溪事業區森林防火線評估,中華林學季刊(vol.32-4)p.505-515
10. 林朝欽(1995),森林火災危險度預測系統之研究,林業試驗所研究報告季刊(vol.10-3)p.325-330
11. 林朝欽(1993),國有林大甲溪事業區之森林火災及防火線,林業試驗所研究報告季刊(vol.8-2)p.159-167
12. 林朝欽(1992),森林燃料系統及其對林火之影響,臺灣林業(vol.18-12)p.22-25
13. 林朝欽(1992),臺灣地區國有林之森林火分析(1963-1991年),林業試驗所研究報告季刊(vol.7-2)p.169-178
14. 林世宗、林朝欽、邱祈榮、周巧盈(2003),林火燃料分類與地面複合式調查方法概述,臺灣林業(vol.29-5)p.20-30