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研究生:施雅韻
研究生(外文):Shih, Yayun
論文名稱:大一新生體型意識、體重控制及其飲食行為相關性之調查
論文名稱(外文):A Study Of The Relationship Between Body Image, Weight-control Behaviors And Dietary Behavior Among Freshmen Students In Providence University
指導教授:高美丁高美丁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kao, Meiding
口試委員:王瑞蓮詹恭巨
口試委員(外文):Wang, JuilineChan,Kungchi
口試日期:2012-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:飲食異常行為體型意識體重控制大學生
外文關鍵詞:Eating DisorderBody ImageWeight-controlFreshmen Students
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近年來飲食異常行為(Eating disorder, ED)的盛行率在青少年族群中有日益增加之現象,嚴重者會導致身體功能受損,甚至死亡。因此本研究目的為探討大一新生體型意識、體重控制、飲食異常行為之盛行率及影響因子,並進一步了解其在用餐頻率及飲食行為上是否有差異。以2205位參加靜宜大學100學年度大一新生CPR安全教育訓練課程者為研究對象,利用自填式問卷探討其體型意識及體重控制之情形,並進一步利用飲食態度量表−26(Eating Attitudes Test, EAT−26)篩選出總得分≧20分為飲食異常行為者,了解其用餐情形、飲食行為及影響因子。
研究結果顯示,整體大一學生其「實際體型」、「自我認知體型」、「期望體型」非常不一致;男、女性分別僅有17.4%及9.2%滿意自己的體型,將近三成的人認為自己體型是標準的;但卻有27.2%的男性及39.9%的女性期望能擁有比現在更纖細的體型,且有21.2%的男性及61.1%的女性高估自己的體型,女性體型意識不佳的情形較男性嚴重。
體重控制部份,不論為何種體型,整體有四成的受試者有減重經驗,而女性比男性有較高比例的人有減重經驗(46.7% vs. 29.3%);男、女性過重或肥胖的比例分別為27.2%及12.2%,但卻同樣接近有六成的人目前正在進行減重,其中以飲食控制及運動為其主要的減重方式,以媒體為其主要的減重資訊來源。
整體大一學生飲食異常行為之盛行率為10.7%,男性為6.8%、女性為12.9%,女性在盛行率(p<0.001)、節食分量(p<0.001)、暴食與食物關注分量(p=0.002)及量表總得分(p<0.001)上皆顯著高於男性。學院方面,其盛行率以管理學院最高(32.5%)、人文暨社會科學院次之(23.6%)、外語學院(21.1%)、理學院(16.0%)、資訊學院(6.8%)最低。飲食異常行為者EAT(+)其每天吃早餐(p=0.047)、午餐(p=0.028)、晚餐(p<0.001)及宵夜(p<0.001)的人數比例顯著低於正常者EAT(-);在每日「豆魚肉蛋類」(p=0.03)及「油脂類」(p<0.001)食物攝取份數上有符合建議之比例顯著低於正常者EAT(-);但在「蔬菜類」(p=0.018)食物攝取份數上符合建議的比例則明顯高於正常者EAT(-)。經邏輯式迴歸預測分析中可得知,「性別」、「體型滿意度」、「實際體型與期望體型的差異(AD)」、「自我認知體型與實際體型的差異(PA)」、「減重經驗」及「目前是否正在減重」為有效預測飲食異常行為的危險因子。
綜合上述,飲食異常行為是大學生一重要的健康議題,其會受到性別、體型意識、減重經驗及行為的影響。因此,建立正確的體型意識、減重的觀念,並教導正確的飲食行為,有助於降低飲食異常行為發生的風險。

The prevalence of Eating Disorder (ED) has been increasing progressively in the past years across the world, which results in serious health problems. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the prevalence of ED among freshmen students, and to identify the risk factors related to body image, weight-control behaviors and ED. Comparisons of food intake patterns and dietary behaviors between the participants with and without ED were also included in this study. 2205 freshmen who had participated Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) safety education and training course for the freshmen students of Providence University in 2011 were selected as subjects. Information on body image, weight-control behaviors and ED (Eating Attitudes Test−26, EAT−26 score≧20) were collected using a self-administrated questionnaires.
Our study indicate that the incongruity is found among subjects’ "actual body shape", "perceived body shape" and "desired body shape". There are 17.4% of males and 9.2% of females that who are satisfied with self body shape, and approximately 30.0% students think their body shape were with standard rqnge. There are 27.2% and 39.9% respectively in males and females who desire to be thinner, however, 21.2% of males and 61.1% of females are overestimated their actual body shape. Females’ self body image were poor than males’.
There are 40.0% of subjects had intentionally weight loss experiences and females were higher than males (46.7% vs. 29.3%). The current data indicate that 27.2% males and 12.2% females are overweight or obesity, respectively. There are close to 60.0% of subjects currently trying to lose weight. They use diet contro and exercise as the major weight-loss methods, additionally, the information about weight loss mainly through the media.
The prevalence of ED for all subject, males and females were 10.7%, 6.8% and 12.9%, respectively. Females have significantly higher ED prevalence (p<0.001), dieting subscales scores (p=0.002), bulimia and food preoccupation subscales scores (p<0.001) and EAT−26 score (p<0.001) than males. Students who are major in Management College (32.5%) and Computing and Informatics College (6.8%) had the highest and lowest ED prevalence than other colleges. The ED prevalence rate among other students from Humanities and Social Sciences College, Languages and Literature College and Science College is 23.6%, 21.1% and 16.0%, respectively.
The EAT (+) group compare to EAT (-) group has lower frequency in breakfast (p=0.047), lunch (p=0.028), dinner (p<0.001) and midnight snack (p<0.001); lower intake Daily Food Guide (DFG) recommendation rate in the food groups of "egg、bean、fish and meats"(p=0.03) and "oil and fat" (p<0.001); higher in "vegetables" (p=0.0018). Logistic regression analysis results showe that "gender", "body shape satisfaction", "difference between actual and desired body shape (AD)", "difference between perceived and actual body shape category (PA)", "weight loss experience" and "current weight-control beiavoirs" are important factors to predict the ED in freshmen students.
In summary, ED is one of the important public health problems among freshmen students, and is affected by gender, body image and weight loss experience and behaviors. Therefore, we suggest that establish the correct body image, weight loss concept and dietary behaviors for college freshmen students in order to prevent the ED.

中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
附錄 X
第一章 前言 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 名詞界定 5
第二章 文獻回顧 8
第一節 體型意識 8
一、體型意識之定義 8
二、影響體型意識之相關因素 9
第二節 體重控制行為 12
一、體重控制行為之定義及現況 12
二、影響體重控制行為之相關因素 13
第三節 飲食異常行為 16
一、飲食異常行為之定義 16
二、飲食異常行為評估工具 19
三、飲食異常行為之盛行率 22
四、飲食異行為對健康之影響 35
五、影響飲食異常行為之相關因素 38
第三章 研究方法 42
第一節 研究架構 42
第二節 研究流程 43
第三節 研究對象 45
第四節 研究工具及方法 46
第五節 資料處理與統計分析 51
第四章 研究結果 52
第一節 全體大一新生之基本資料分析 52
第二節 全體大一新生體型意識分佈之情形 53
第三節 全體大一新生體重控制行為之情形 56
第四節 全體大一新生飲食異常行為之盛行率 57
第五節 飲食異常與正常行為者其體型意識、體重控制行為及飲食行為之差異 57
第六節 飲食異常行為影響因子之邏輯式迴歸分析 59
第五章 討論 62
第一節 全體大一新生體型意識分佈之情形 62
第二節 全體大一新生體重控制行為現況 64
第三節 全體大一新生飲食異常行為盛行率之現況 65
第四節 大一新生飲食異常行為相關影響因子之探討 66
第五節 飲食異常與正常行為者其體型意識、體重控制行為及飲食行為之探討 69
第六章 結論與建議 89
第一節 結論 89
第二節 研究限制 90
第三節 建議 91
第七章 參考文獻 92

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