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研究生(外文):Lily Hsueh
論文名稱(外文):How Michael Ondaatje’s Anils’ Ghost Adapts the Detective Genre to Link the Aesthetic World of Mythology
指導教授(外文):Catherine Diamond
外文關鍵詞:Anil&aposs Ghostgenre studydetective novelSri Lanka civil warpolitical novelMichael Ondaatjefragmentary narrativejuxtoposing imagesNational Buddhismmythological symbolismaestheticspolitical ethicsbody-centered
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《菩薩凝望的島嶼》是Michael Ondaatje以斯里蘭卡內戰為主題的小說。本文從偵探小說的歷史和形式入手,以John G. Cawelti小說文型研究為架構,以當代法醫探案小說《洞窟的秘密》為文本比較,探討《菩》小說在文類、格式和寫作手法上和偵探小說的異同。接著從異處著手,研究小說中突破偵探架構的破碎敘事、美學意象和神話象徵,凸顯作者對戰爭中對尋找屠殺真相得以獲得解脫的辯證和懷疑。許多學者對《菩》小說的辯證和政治觀展開長期的筆戰和批判,認為作者過於注重美學而犧牲了政治倫理、將內戰淪為背景來服務上層階級的感情故事,以及對佛教政權有所偏愛;本文最後研究各家政治批判並得出個人結論,認為《菩》小說有其主觀的不代表性、佛教意象在小說中作為一個人道主義象徵和神話美學的依歸,並無意支持現實僧伽羅佛教政權;但故事的救贖來得太容易,並不完全貼近當地政治現況。《菩》小說就創作而言,從一個稍遠的距離書寫島嶼,將斯里蘭卡的傷痛,以引人入勝的敘事展演出來,並以佛教悲憫精神表達出政治真相固然重要,但放下心中的仇恨和痛苦,才是解脫的開始。
This thesis examines the processes of the truth-seeking in Michael Ondaatje’s Anil Ghost. The novel starts as a murder investigation and follows detective genre conventions, such as the use of a minor episode that introduces the detective, the paradoxical clues the detective finds, the process of investigation, the solution of the crime, and identification of the murder. Through use of John G. Cawelti’s definition of crime fiction patterns and by comparing it with the forensic crime novel, Grave Secrets, I argue that Anil’s Ghost shares many common characteristics with a detective novel, yet unlike typical detective novels that are structured around the idea that the truth will heal the wounded society, Anil's Ghost scrutinizes the value of a single objective truth and suggests possible alternatives. Ondaatje builds upon a forensic science genre that deals with truth-finding by fusing it with a poetic aesthetics and the mythical search for an inner truth. Ondaatje employs fragmentary scenes of memories and juxtaposes images of current horror, the ancient architecture and the nature and creates a mythological symbolism rooted in Buddhist theology. As the investigation progresses, Ondaatje focuses increasingly on spiritual rather than scientific and political truths and this approach provoked criticism from Sri Lankan scholars who accused him of prettifying the real political problems of Sri Lanka for the sake of an aesthetic conclusion, and supporting government-sponsored Nationalist Buddhism. This thesis asserts that he engages with a different kind of Buddhism and does not justify killing in the name of Buddhism, and instead supports a spiritual truth that transcends politics, suggesting that a religious understanding along with the earthly justice can bring about the inner peace that reconciles the suffering people of the war-torn country.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment iii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1. Information on the Sri Lankan Civil War
2. Author’s Background
3. Summary of Anil’s Ghost
4. Review of literature
5. The Contemporary Forensic Novel

Chapter Two: History of the Detective and the Forensic Detective Novel 14
1. Anil’s Ghost as a Detective Fiction
2. History of Detective Genre
3. The Development of Forensic Crime Fiction
4. The Female Protagonist in the Crime Fiction

Chapter Three: Detective formula 29
1. Cawelti’s Four Patterns of Detective Formula
2. Situation
3. Pattern of Action
4. A Group of Characters
5. Setting

Chapter Four: Detective World and Mythical World in Anil’s Ghost 55
1. Fragments
2. Mythological Aesthetics
3. Poetic Justice
4. Body-Centered

Chapter Five: The World on Fire and Novel’s Self-Consciousness 74
1. The World is Like a House on Fire
2. The Ethical Problems from the Cultural History Perspectives
3. The novel’s self-consciousness
4. Conclusion

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