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研究生:景鈺雲
研究生(外文):Yu Yun Jing
論文名稱:Elder rights in Southern California -A Study of the City of Irvine’s Senior Citizen Community Services
論文名稱(外文):Elder rights in Southern California -A Study of the City of Irvine’s Senior Citizen Community Services
指導教授:林正弘林正弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng-hung Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:人權碩士學位學程
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:老人人權社會福利權利社會活動老年人社區服務社會服務老人人口統計學老人獨立自主性
外文關鍵詞:elder rightssocial rightssocial activitiessenior community servicessenior demographicssenior independencesocial services
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老人人權是當今其中一個迅速發展法定權利的特別領域。十年前,幾乎沒有人關心以及提出有關老人法定權利。大多數的人認為有關年長的人的需求與其他年齡層是相同的。事實上,許多老人感到他們特別的需求總是被一般人所忽略, 例如遺囑的認證、繼承税、授權書 (在健康處於惡劣的情況下)、生前信託、如何投資和預防才不會透支他們在銀行的存款、老化或是慢性健康問題以及缺乏充實生活的機會等等。

有許多個原因來說明為什麼老年人需要從社區中得到幫助。
1. 老人在家庭的地位逐漸降低, 隨著網路科技的發達, 年青人不再依賴長輩們所提供的傳統信息, 更由於社會工業化, 大多數年青人多半會離家遷移到外地工作的地方。 因此, 多世代大家庭相對地減少。這種減少家庭成員的情形, 影響最大的是在多世代家庭中的年長者。無形中增加其對社區公共福利的高度需求性, 而社區公共福利措施也漸漸取代老人家過去只靠孩子或親戚提供的支持。
2. 家庭小型化; 大多數家庭比以前的大家庭孩子數量減少。愈來愈多老年人沒有與孩子一起同住, 有的老人甚至單獨居住。 人口結構的改變, 多數集中在工業化國家,其出生率逐年下降。有許多夫婦因為專注於于他們的事業, 因而沒有生育孩子或是延遲生育孩子。 並且, 高成長的離婚率導致許多單親家庭的產生。因為家庭中成員的減少, 大大地增加老人獨自居住的可能性。
3. 隨著社會的平均年齡增加, 社會將面臨一些關於如何面對老年人特殊需求大量增加的問題。政府應該適時提供社區資源服務來援助需要幫助的老人, 並且提供適當訊息, 充實老人的生活知識,共解同決老化所帶來的一些社會問題, 例如健醫療保健、 法律諮詢的協助、財務處理和缺乏社交活動方面的場所之類的問題。

老年人也想要和任何人一樣擁有相同的權利。像似工作權、醫療保健權、政治發言權和參與社會活動權。隨著全球己開發國家中的小家庭數
目的增加, 老人人權的獨特需求性必將受到政府相當地重視。而在南加州有一個典型的城市; 爾灣市就是其中的一個成功的例子。本篇研究是討論有關南加州政府-爾灣市老年人社區服務中心如何執行以及怎樣提供這樣的社區服務, 而且讓使用的社區老人真正完全享用社會福利的權利, 進而改變其對生活的看法。爾灣市老年人社區服務中心己成為許多老人社區服務中心的學習典範。加州老年人社區服務中心是以城市為單位的社區基本創新服務活動。主要的服務對象是社區老人和他們的看護者。進而協助老人們適應獨立自主的生活方式。因此, 這項社區服務應該被視為是老年人的一種社會福利權利。然而,目前仍有許多國家尚未提供任何有關老年人社區服務的福利機構來幫助社區老人成長。根據全球人口統計學趨向顯示, 老年人是人口發展最迅速的一群, 而國家社會應該加強重視如何讓老年人持續其生產能力和增強照顧自已的獨立性。 透過老人社區服務中心的活動,儘可能的提供相關資源, 協助社區老人成長, 了解法律常識以及如何維護自己的權益, 讓老年人生活得更充實、更有價值和更有尊嚴。
The rights of the elderly should be on the forefront in discussions of emerging legal rights. While the rights of children have been well documented and discussed, there has been a lack of significant discourse on the elderly segment of the population. Most societies might assume that the rights and concerns of senior citizens are the same as the general population, but seniors have unique needs and concerns associated with their advancing age and associated health issues. In each stage in life, a person has different needs and societies needs to recognize that the elderly have their own unique and special needs. On the other hand, many senior citizens have increasingly felt that their peculiar concerns are being ignored: probate, inheritance taxes, power of attorney (if in poor health), living trusts, how to invest and not outlive their savings, failing or chronic health issues, and lack of enrichment opportunities.

There are multiple reasons why elderly people need help from the community.
1. The status of elderly people has diminished as younger people no longer depend on older citizens for information. Due to industrialization, multi-generational households are increasing less common as children move away to get jobs. This decrease in multi-generational homes increases the need for public services for the elderly in order to replace the support that was previously provided by children or relatives.

2. Families are getting smaller; most families have fewer children than previously. It is becoming increasingly more likely for seniors to live alone. Demographics are changing and in most industrialized countries, the birth rate is decreasing. An increasing number of couples do not have kids and are delaying having children to focus on their careers. Also, divorce is causing an increase in single parent families. The average size of households in decreasing and seniors are more likely to be living by themselves.

3. Demographic trends throughout the developed and developing world show that the number of elderly in the world continues to increase. People are living longer than ever before due to improved sanitary conditions and healthcare. Societies will be dealing with effects of an aging population on a scale that they might not have anticipated involving health maintenance, legal issues, financial issues, lack of continuing education, and lack of social activities. As average age increases, society can no longer afford to ignore those problems that are especially characteristic of senior citizens. There should central services to aid and enrich the lives of the elderly in dealing with those problems of aging.

Elderly people want the same rights as anyone else - the ability to find work, healthcare, a political voice, and engage in a social life. But as families in developed countries become smaller worldwide, the unique needs of the elderly need to be addressed. One example of how this is being done is by examining the services provided to seniors by a typical city in southern California: Irvine. Senior community services in California are city services that provide innovative community-based service programs to seniors and their caregivers to help them remain independent. Many countries do not provide any senior community services to the elderly. However, it should be considered to be a right of the elderly to have social services. Not only are the elderly living longer, but also they deserve a better lifestyle and dignity.

It is important for society to recognize that the demographics trends around the world show that the elderly is the fastest growing segment of the population and therefore, it’s important to keep the elderly as productive and independent as possible. This can be accomplished by the availability of senior community service centers.

Keywords: elder rights, social rights, social activities,
senior community services,
social services, senior demographics, senior independence
Contents.............................................ii
Acknowledgements....................................iii
Abstract.................................................iv
中文摘要...................................6
1. Introduction...........................................8
2. Senior Community Services............................15
2.1 What is a Senior Community Services Center?..........17
2.2 The City of Irvine - Lakeview Senior Center..........27
2.3 The City of Irvine - Rancho San Joaquin Senior
Center...30
3. The Impact of Senior Community Services..............33
3.1 The Change in Seniors’ Thinking on Life............33
3.2 Before and After Joining the Senior Service Center...35
4. What are the Rights of Elderly?......................39
5. Senior Community Services is One of the Social Services of the Elderly..........................................47
5.1 Senior Community Services as an Elderly Right........49
5.2 Living with Dignity- Improvements in Lifestyle.......54
6. Conclusion............................................57
References...............................................62
Appendix.................................................65
A.1 Daily Activities of Lakeview Senior Center...........65
A.2 Daily Activities of the Rancho Senior Center.........66
A.3 Irvine Lakeview Senior Center........................67
A.4 Irvine Rancho Senior Center..........................67
A.5 New York Senior Center Rights Protest................68
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