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研究生:劉盈顯
研究生(外文):Ying-Sian Liu
論文名稱:營造業勞工噪音暴露及聽力損失之橫斷性研究
論文名稱(外文):A Cross-Sectional Study of Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss in Construction Workers
指導教授:曾麗荷曾麗荷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Ho Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大仁科技大學
系所名稱:環境管理研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:營造業噪音暴露聽力損失
外文關鍵詞:hearing lossconstruction sitesnoise exposure
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本研究以橫斷性研究法針對高雄市兩個工地進行個人噪音暴露劑量及聽力閾值評估,以探討營造業勞工噪音暴露情形及聽力狀況。研究對象共70人,其中混凝土工人8人, 板模工人14人,鋼筋工人11人, 防水工人8人,行政人員為29人,營造業勞工平均年齡為39.87歲,平均工作年資為9.42年。行政人員平均年齡為38.07歲,平均工作年資為4.84年。個人噪音暴露劑量結果顯示,板模工人、混凝土工人以及防水工人各有2人(佔14.2%)、1人(佔12.5%)及2人(25%)超過50%,達到法規規定需配戴耳塞或耳罩的劑量。另外,本研究於上班前測量勞工之聽力閾值,將結果以三分法、四分法及六分法分析聽力損失(平均聽力閾值>25dB),發現營造業勞工聽力損失盛行率各為 53.6%、58.5% 及48.7%,以四分法有較高的聽力損失盛行率。若以四分法進行工種分析,發現聽力損失盛行率最嚴重的是板模工人(佔78.6%),其次為混凝土工人(佔62.5%)和防水工人(佔62.5%),最後為鋼筋工人(佔27.2%)。比較五個工種,噪音暴露劑量大小排序為板模工人>防水工人>混凝土工人>鋼筋工人>行政人員。聽力損失盛行率依大小排序為板模工人>混凝土工人>防水工人>鋼筋工人>行政人員,由此可知工種與聽力損失之間具相關性。現場觀察的結果顯示勞工並沒有配戴防音防護具,為保護勞工的健康,本研究建議營造業應加強勞工對噪音危害的認知,並實施聽力保護計畫。
In this research, the noise level and the hearing threshold of the construction workers on two work sites in Kaohsiung city was evaluated in order to examine the noise exposure and hearing status of the workers by Cross-Sectional Study. Seventy subjects including 8 concrete grouting workers, 14 framework workers, 11 structure steel workers, 8 waterproofing workers and 29 administrative staff were chosen to conduct the tests in this study. The average age of these 41 construction workers was 39.87 years and the averaged duration of employment was 9.42 years. The average age of administrative staff was 38.07 years and averaged duration of employment was 4.84 years. Results showed that, as far as noise exposure level was concerned, 2 framework workers (14.2%), 1 concrete grouting worker (12.5%) and 2 waterproofing (25%) were found to 50% exceed the regulation limit which the wearing ear plugs or ear shields became mandatory. Besides, the hearing threshold assessment of the workers prior to work was measured and the result was analyzed by using three, four, and six- distribution methods to evaluate the hearing loss (averaged hearing threshold > 25 dB). It was found that the hearing loss evaluation by using three, four, and six distribution method was found to be 53.6%, 58.5% and 48.7%, respectively, with four- distribution method shown highest hearing loss. When using the four-distribution method to analyze the relationship between the hearing loss and the type of work, we found that 78.6% of the framework workers suffered hearing loss, followed by 62.5% of the concrete grouting workers and waterproofing workers, and 27.2% of the structural steel workers suffered hearing loss. It is obvious that working type does have impact on the occurrence of the hearing loss. On-site observation found that workers did not equip with hearing protection kits. It is recommended that employees should improve the construction workers causes of hearing loss information and implement hearing protection programs.
摘要 ............................................................................................................. I
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................... II
誌謝 ........................................................................................................... III
表目錄..................................................................................................... VII
圖目錄.................................................................................................... VIII
第一章 前言 .............................................................................................. 1
1-1研究背景 ........................................................................................... 1
1-2研究目的 ........................................................................................... 2
第二章 文獻探討 ...................................................................................... 3
2-1營造業作業現況描述 ....................................................................... 3
2-2營造業之危害因子 ........................................................................... 5
表2-2各國營造業職業災害死亡千人率 ................................................. 7
2-3噪音的定義 ....................................................................................... 8
2-5噪音對生理的危害 ......................................................................... 11
2-6聽力損失指標 ................................................................................. 14
3-1研究動機與架構圖 ......................................................................... 18

3-2研究流程與架構 ............................................................................. 19
3-3研究場所描述 ................................................................................. 21
3-4研究對象 ......................................................................................... 23
3-5問卷調查 ......................................................................................... 27
3-6作業環境噪音頻譜分析 ................................................................. 28
3-7個人噪音暴露劑量之量測 ............................................................. 29
3-8勞工聽力閾值之測定 ..................................................................... 31
3-9 統計分析 ........................................................................................ 33
第四章 結果與討論 ................................................................................ 34
4-1研究對象的基本資料 ..................................................................... 34
4-2-1不同工種個人噪音暴露劑量分析 ............................................. 41
4-3勞工聽力測定結果 ......................................................................... 42
4-4作業環境噪音變化情形 ................................................................. 50
4-5聽力損失與相關因子的關係 ......................................................... 52
4-7研究限制 ......................................................................................... 60
第五章 結論和建議 ................................................................................ 61
5-1、結論 .............................................................................................. 61
5-2建議 ................................................................................................. 62

參考文獻 .................................................................................................. 63
附表1 噪音健康問卷調查 .................................................................. 70

表目錄
表2-1 營造業等級及資本額現況 .............................................. 4
表2-3各國作業環境噪音標準值 ............................................... 9
表2-4營建工程噪音管制標準值 ............................................. 10
表4-1 營造業勞工及行政人員基本資料 ................................ 35
表4-2 營造業勞工及行政人員環境感受及個人防護具使用 37
表4-3 個人生活習慣、健康部份 ............................................ 39
表4-4 不同組別個人暴露劑量表 ............................................ 40
表4-5不同工種的暴露劑量 ..................................................... 41
表4-7以三分法分析右耳之聽力損失 ..................................... 43
表4-8以四分法分析左耳之聽力損失 ..................................... 44
表4-9以四分法分析右耳之聽力損失 ..................................... 44
表4-10以六分法分析左耳之聽力損失 ................................... 45
表4-11以六分法分析右耳之聽力損失 ................................... 45
表4-12以三分法分析各種工種左耳聽力損失程度 ............... 46
表4-13以四分法分析各種工種左耳聽力損失程度 ............... 46
表4-14以六分法分析各種工種左耳聽力損失程度 ............... 47
表4-16以四分法分析各種工種右耳聽力損失程度 ............... 48
表4-17以六分法分析各種工種右耳聽力損失程度 ............... 49

圖目錄
圖3-1 研究動機架構圖 ............................................................ 18
圖3-2 研究流程圖 .................................................................... 19
圖3-3 A工地 .............................................................................. 21
圖3-5 A工地地下室 .................................................................. 22
圖3-7 板模工人 ........................................................................ 23
圖3-8 混凝土工人 .................................................................... 24
圖3-9 鋼筋工人 ........................................................................ 25
圖3-10防水工人 ....................................................................... 26
圖3-11頻譜分析儀(SVAN945A) ........................................ 28
圖3-12噪音劑量計(Exposure Meter) ................................. 29
圖3-13音壓校正器(TES-1356CL) ...................................... 30
圖3-14 噪音劑量計(Exposure Meter)實驗模擬圖 ............ 30
圖 3-15 聽力檢測計 (Beltone Spcial Instruments) ................. 31
圖3-16 聽力檢測計(Beltone Spcial Instruments)實驗模擬圖 32
圖4-1 A工地地下板模工作業環境短時間瞬時Leq值 ......... 50
圖4-2 B工地地上板模工工作業環境短時間瞬時Leq值 ..... 51
圖4-3營造業勞工不同年齡層左耳聽力圖之比較 ................. 53

圖4-4營造業勞工不同年齡層右耳聽力圖之比較 ................. 53
圖4-5行政人員不同年資左耳聽力圖之比較 ......................... 55
圖4-6行政人員不同年資右耳聽力圖之比較 ......................... 55
圖4-7營造業勞工不同年資左耳聽力圖之比較 ..................... 57
圖4-8營造業勞工不同年資右耳聽力圖之比較 ..................... 57
圖4-9實驗品質管控左耳聽力圖之兩次比較 ......................... 59
圖4-10實驗品質管控右耳聽力圖之兩次比較 ....................... 59
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