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研究生:林文琪
研究生(外文):Wen-chi Lin
論文名稱:分析非肥胖型糖尿病小鼠之脾臟與年齡相關發炎基因之表現
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of age-related gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spleens of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice
指導教授:許婷婷許婷婷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ting-Ting Sheu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:慈濟大學
系所名稱:微生物學免疫學暨生物化學碩士班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:微生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:非肥胖型糖尿病小鼠年齡發炎基因
外文關鍵詞:inflammatory cytokinesage-relatednon-obese diabetic (NOD) mice
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隨年齡增加而免疫功能下降或失去是所謂的免疫老化。免疫老化包括先天性與後天性免疫功能的喪失或改變。其中,在老年人身上似乎有發炎細胞激素 TNF-α 和 IL-6 上升的慢性發炎情況。另外在正常 Balb/c 小鼠身上,經過刺激後的發炎細胞激素 TNF-α 也有隨著年齡增加而上升的趨勢,此一隨著年齡增加而容易產生發炎的現象已定義為發炎老化。許多好發於中老年人的自體免疫疾病會伴隨發炎細胞激素上升的現象,例如類風濕性關節炎的病人有發炎細胞激素增加的情形。然而,有些自體免疫疾病則是在年輕時就發生,其是否也有發炎老化現象則不清楚。本論文探討年輕時就得到第一型糖尿病的 NOD 小鼠是否有發炎老化之現象。分析方法是將11週到30週大的 NOD 小鼠與11週到100週大的正常 Balb/c 小鼠比較在不同年齡之發炎細胞激素基因表現量。
本實驗運用即時定量聚合酶連鎖反應進行定量,比較發炎細胞激素 IL-1、IL-6、IL-12 及 TNF-α 在脾臟白血球 mRNA 的表現水平。我們的實驗結果顯示:Balb/c 小鼠四種基因之表達除了 IL-1 較不顯著之外,其他基因在年齡17週後會隨著年齡逐漸上升而增加表現量。然而,有趣的是,在17週的 Balb/c 小鼠其 IL-1、IL-6、IL-12 及 TNF-α 之表達甚至比在11、12週要低。而先前也有研究結果顯示,在健康的 C57BL/6 小鼠的淚液蛋白質中,IL-1β、IL-6和 IL-12 p40 在12週時表達都顯著地比16週高,在結膜的 mRNA 中 IL-6 之表達也有同樣的情形,與我們所觀察到的情形相符。另外,相當於人類中年52歲的70週 Balb/c 小鼠,其 IL-12 和 TNF-α 表現量在所有年齡中最高,雖然到了相當於人類老年74歲的100週 Balb/c 小鼠其表現量有略微下降的情形。IL-6 則是在100週的表現量最高。以上結果表示隨著年齡增加 Balb/c 小鼠有發炎老化的現象發生。
若與同年齡的 Balb/c 小鼠比較,一般而言,NOD 小鼠之細胞激素 IL-1、IL-6、IL-12 和 TNF-α 有較高的表達,其 IL-12、TNF-α 和 IL-1 之表達在15週與 Balb/c 小鼠之間有最明顯的差異,而 IL-6 之表達則在14週的差異最明顯。 NOD 小鼠在14週時之IL-6與在15週時之 IL-12 和 TNF-α 表達量就已達到與70週 Balb/c 小鼠相同的發炎狀態。因此,我們的結果顯示 NOD 小鼠可能有發炎老化的現象。
An age-related decline and dysfunction in protective immunity is defined as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence includes the alterations of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Among these, there is a chronic inflammatory state seen in the elderly with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, in normal Balb/c mice, inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is increased upon stimulation with aging. The inflammatory state with aging is termed as inflammaging. Several autoimmune diseases with increased incidences among the elderly, such as rheumatoid arthritis, are associated with the increase of inflammatory cytokines. However, there are some autoimmune diseases occurring at a young age. Whether they also exhibit inflammaging is still not clear. In this study, the NOD mice, an animal model of early-onset type 1 diabetes, was used to explore in which whether there is an inflammaging phenomenon. The method of analysis is comparing the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in NOD mice between 11 and 30 weeks old and in normal Balb/c mice between 11 and 100 weeks old.
Quantitative real-time PCR was used to analyze the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in splenic white blood cells. Our results demonstrated that, except IL-1, the gene expression levels of these cytokines gradually increase with aging since 17 weeks old. Interestingly, in Balb/c mice, the expression levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α are lowest at 17 weeks old rather than 11 and 12 weeks old. A previous research indicates that, there is significantly higher protein levels of IL-1β、IL-6 and IL-12 p40 in tear fluid at 12 weeks old than that at 16 weeks old C57BL/6 mice. The RNA expression level of IL-6 in the conjunctiva exhibits the same pattern, which is in agreement with our observations. In addition, in Balb/c mice, the expression levels of IL-12 and TNF-α are highest at 70 weeks old corresponding to 52 years old of human age, although decrease at 100 weeks old mice which correspond to 74 years old of human age. The result is consistent with previous reports showing increased expression of IL-12 and TNF-α with aging in Balb/c mice.
In general, the expression levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α of NOD mice are higher than that of age-matched control Balb/c mice. Between NOD and Balb/c mice, the differences in the levels of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-1 as well as in the level of IL-6 are greatest at 15 weeks old and 14 weeks old, respectively. The level of IL-6 as well as the levels of IL-12 and TNF-α in NOD mice at 14 and 15 weeks old respectively are as the same as those cytokine levels in 70-week-old Balb/c mice. Therefore, our results suggest that NOD mice might exhibit the inflammaging phenomenon.
壹、前言 1
一、 老化現況與機轉 1
二、 免疫老化 1
三、 老化與發炎 2
四、 發炎細胞激素介紹 3
五、 自體免疫疾病與發炎細胞激素失調 4
六、 實驗動機 5
貳、材料與方法 6
一、材料 6
二、儀器 8
三、方法 8
叄、結果 13
一、以 PCR 方式半定量 GAPDH 表現量 13
二、以即時定量 PCR 方式定量發炎細胞激素表現量 13
肆、討論 15
一、 發炎細胞激素表達隨年齡改變 15
二、自體免疫疾病的致病機轉 16
三、第一型糖尿病 NOD 小鼠發炎細胞激素表達情形 18
四、總結 19
伍、參考文獻 21
圖一:參考基因GAPDH以繪圖軟體Image J進行半定量。 27
圖二:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素 IL-12 mRNA 在不同年齡之表達。 28
圖三:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素 IL-12 mRNA 在不同年齡群組之表達。 29
圖四:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素 TNF-α mRNA 在不同年齡之表達。 30
圖五:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素TNF-α mRNA 在不同年齡群組之表達。 31
圖六:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素 IL-6 mRNA 在不同年齡之表達。 32
圖七:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素IL-6 mRNA 在不同年齡群組之表達。 33
圖八:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素 IL-1 mRNA 在不同年齡之表達。 34
圖九:脾臟之白血球細胞內發炎細胞激素IL-1 mRNA 在不同年齡群組之表達。 35
附表一:細胞激素來源 36
附錄一:試劑配方 38
附錄二:PCR 反應條件 39
附錄三:PCR引子序列 40
附錄四:NOD小鼠發病機率 41
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