跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.231.230.177) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/04 10:21
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:許晏榕
研究生(外文):Hsu, Yan Ron
論文名稱:以結構方程模型探究生心理因素對外語學習的影響
論文名稱(外文):Assessing Psycho-Physiological Factors in Foreign Language Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
指導教授:李舒萍李舒萍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee, Shu Ping
口試委員:黃怡靜鄭正豐
口試委員(外文):Huang, Yi ChingCheng, Cheng Feng
口試日期:2012-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:亞洲大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:低專注力考試焦慮感內向人格特質睡眠品質低落缺乏運動生心理因素外語學習
外文關鍵詞:InattentionTest anxietyIntroverted personality typePoor sleep qualityPhysical inactivityPsycho-physiological Factorsforeign language learning
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:2307
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:68
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
目前已有許多研究致力於探討心理或生理因素對學習造成的影響。然而,卻少有研究將心理與生理因素整合成一個可能影響外語學習的變數。本研究為一跨領域研究,除了運用專注力測量工具CPT II之外,也輔以紙本問卷包含成人過動量表、情境焦慮量表以及D型人格量表了解心理因素(專注力、考試焦慮感以及內向人格特質)與外語學習之間的關係。而生理因素對外語學習的影響(睡眠品質和運動量)則以睡眠品質量表、一星期燃燒的卡路里總量(MET)以及身體質量指數(BMI)做為評量指標。完成全部資料收集程序的學生為292位以英語為主修的台灣大學生,除了以英語閱讀和聽力測驗做為學生的外語學習成就參考之外,他們的整體英語表現亦是外語學習成就評量之一。此研究主要議題為:上述生、心理因素是否影響外語學習? 本研究選擇可用於多變量分析的結構方程模型為主要統計工具。其路徑分析顯示低專注力、高考試焦慮感以及缺乏運動的生活型態對外語學習會造成不利的影響,而內向人格特質則有助於外語學習成績。儘管較差的睡眠品質並未對外語學習成績造成直接影響,但卻和考試焦慮感及內向人格特質為正向關係,可能間接影響外語學習。此外,缺乏運動的生活型態亦會加劇分心與考試焦慮感的情況。透過結構方程式模組,本研究證明了心理與生理之間密不可分的關係及其對外語學習的影響。腦部認知相關的心理因素與健康相關的生理因素之間的因果關係顯示了人類生心理之間密不可分的連結,並對外語學習產生影響。
Many studies have demonstrated interests in the impacts of psychological or physiological factors on learning. However, few research studies were available regarding the coexistence and reciprocal effects of psychological and physiological factors on foreign language performance. This interdisciplinary study employed questionnaires, which include CAARS, state anxiety inventory, and type D personality, as well as a psychological instrument, CPT II, in order to look for the relationship between psychological factors (inattention, test anxiety, and introverted personality type) and foreign language performance. The impact of physiological factors (poor sleep quality and physical inactivity) on foreign language learning was assessed through sleep quality questionnaires, calories burned during physical activity, and participants’ BMI. The sample consisted of 292 participants studying English as a major in a university in Taiwan. Two tests of reading and listening as well as students’ English proficiency scores were used for measuring students’ foreign language performance. A quantitative analysis by using structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied, which can help examine the question: Do the aforementioned psycho-physiological factors have impacts on foreign language performance? The path diagram shown in this study supported the hypothesized direct detrimental effect of inattention, test anxiety, and physical inactivity on foreign language performance. Introverted personality type was positively correlated with foreign language performance. Poor sleep quality did not influence foreign language performance, but had a significant positive correlation with introverted personality type and test anxiety. Another statistical significance was found among inattention, test anxiety and physical inactivity. Via using SEM, the present study proved and interpreted a closely remarkable relationship between cognition-related psychological factors and health-related physiological factors concerning foreign language learning. This study reminded people of the importance of the inseparable body and mind which affects our brain function in learning.
Acknowledgments i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iii
Table of contents iv
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
1. Introduction
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Rationale 2
1.3 Literature Reviews 6
1.3.1 Psychological factors 6
1.3.2 Physiological factors 20
1.4 Research Purpose 25
1.5 Research Question 26
1.6 Definition and Hypothesis 27
1.6.1 Psychological factors 27
1.6.2 Physiological factors 29
1.6.3 Psycho-Physiological factors 30
2. Research Method 34
2.1 Subjects 34
2.2 Instruments 35
2.2.1 Participants’ personal information 35
2.2.2 Inattention 35
2.2.3 Test anxiety 36
2.2.4 Introverted personality type 37
2.2.5 Poor sleep quality 38
2.2.6 Physical inactivity 38
2.2.7 Data analysis 42
2.3 Procedure 44
3. Results 46
3.1 Descriptive Analysis 46
3.1.1 Inattention 46
3.1.2 Test anxiety 47
3.1.3 Introverted personality type 47
3.1.4 Poor sleep quality 47
3.1.5 Physical inactivity 48
3.3 Correlational Analysis 49
3.3.1 Inattention 49
3.3.2 Test anxiety 50
3.3.3 Introverted personality type 50
3.3.4 Poor sleep quality 50
3.3.5 Physical inactivity 50
3.4 Path Analysis 51
4. Discussion 56
4.1 Psychological Impact 56
4.2 Physiological Impact 66
4.3 Psycho-Physiological Impact 69
5. Pedagogical Implication 72
6. Conclusions 79
6.1 Significance of the Present study 79
6.2 Limitations of the Present Study 80
6.3 Suggestions of the Present Study 81
7. References 82

References
Ahamed, Y., MacDonald, H., Reed, K., Naylor, P. J., Liu-Ambrose, T., & McKay, H. (2007). School-based physical activity does not compromise children’s academic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 371-376.
Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope’s construct of foreign language anxiety: the case of students of Japanese. The Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 155-168.
Ainsworth, B. E., Haskell, W. L., Whitt, M. C., Irwin, M. L., Swartz, A. M., Strath, S. J., O’Brien, W. L., Bassett, D. R. Jr., Schmitz, K. H., Emplaincourt, P. O., Jacobs, D. R. Jr., & Leon, A. S., (2000). Compendium of Physical Activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(9 Suppl), S498-S504.
Al-Hejin, B., (2005). Attention and Awareness: Evidence from Cognitive and Second Language Acquisition Research. Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 4(1), 1-22.
Arnold, J. (2000). Seeing through listening comprehension exam anxiety. TESOL Quarterly, 34(4), 777-786.
Baars, B. J. (1988). A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bailey, K. M. (1983). Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: looking at and through the diary studies. In H. W. Seliger & M. H. Long (Eds.), Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 67-102). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Barbour, K. A. & Blumenthal, J. A. (2005). Exercise training and depression in older adults. Neurobiol. Aging, 26(Suppl. 1), 119-123.
Barkley, R. A., (1996). Critical issues in research on attention. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.). Attention, Memory, and Executive Function (pp. 45-56). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Bartholomew, J. B. & Linder, D. E. (1998). State anxiety following resistance exercise: the role of gender and exercise intensity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(2), 205-219.
Birjandi, P., & Alemi, M. (2010). The impact of test anxiety on test performance among Iranian EFL learners. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 1(4), 44-58.
Briggs-Myers, I., & Briggs, K. C. (1985). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Brown, R. (1991). Group work, task difference and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 11, 1-12.
Buysse, D. J., Reynolds III, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A New Instrument for Psychiatric Practice and Research. Psychiatry Research, 28, 193-213.
Buzsaki, G. (1989). Two-stage model of memory trace formation: a role for “noisy” brain states. Neuroscience, 31, 551–570.
Buzsaki, G. (1998). Memory consolidation during sleep: a neurophysiological perspective. J. Sleep Res., 7(1), 17-23.
Byrnes, H. (1984). The Role of listening comprehension: A Theoretical base. Foreign Language Annals, 17, 317-329.
Byrnes, H., Crane, C., Maxim, H. H., & Sprang, K. A. (2006). Taking text to task: Issues and choices in curriculum construction. ITL.International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 152, 85-110.
Byrnes, J. P. (2001). Minds, brains, and learning. New York: The Guilford Press.
Campbell, C. M., & Ortiz, J. (1991). Helping students overcome foreign language anxiety: A foreign language anxiety workshop. In E. K. Horwitz & D. L. Young (Eds.), Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications (pp.153-159). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Carney, C. E., Edinger, J. D., Meyer, B., Lindman, L., & Istre, T. (2006). Daily activities and sleep quality in college students. Chronobiology International, 23(3), 623-637.
Carr, T. H., & Curran, T. (1994). Cognitive factors in learning about structured sequence: Applications to Syntax, 16(2), 205-230.
Candlin, C. (1987). Towards task-based language learning. In C. Candlin & D. Murphy (Eds.), Language Learning Tasks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Carskadon, M. A. (1990). Patterns of sleep and sleepiness in adolescents. Pediatrician, 17, 5-12.
Carskadon, M. A., Harvey, K., & Dement, W. (1981a). Acute restriction of nocturnal sleep in children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 103-112.
Carskadon, M. A., Harvey, K., & Dement, W. (1981b). Sleep loss in young adolescents. Sleep, 4(3), 299-312.
Carlson, R. A., & Dulany, D. E. (1985). Conscious attention and abstraction in concept learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 15, 517-526.
Carrell, P. L. & Anderson, N. J. (1994). Styles and strategies in second language acquisition. Paper presented at the TESOL Convention, Baltimore: MD.
Carrell, P. L., Prince, M., & Astika, G. (1996). Personality type and language learning in an EFL context. Language Learning, 46(1), 75-99.
Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 270-295.
Cheng, Y. S., Horwitz, E. K., & Schallert, D. L. (1999). Language anxiety: differentiating writing and speaking components. Language Learning, 49(3), 417-446.
Chung, S. K., & Long, C. F. (1984). A study of the revised state-trait inventory. Psychological Testing, 1, 27-36.
Coe, D. P., Pivarnik, J. M., Womack, C. J., Reeves, M. J., & Malina, R. M. (2006). Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 1515-1519.
Conners, C. K., Erhardt, D., & Sparrow, E. (1998). The Conners adult ADHD rating scale (CAARS). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems Inc.
Conners, C. K., & MHS Staff, (2000). Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT II) [Computer software]. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems Inc.
Cook, V. (2008). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. (4th ed.). London: Hodder Education.
Cotman C. W. & Berchtold, N. C., (2002). Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. TRENDS in Neurosciences, 25(6), 295-301.
Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & Gennaro, L. D. (2006). Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(5), 323-337.
Daley, A. J., & Ryan, J.(2000). Academic performance and participation in physical activity by secondary school adolescents. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 531-534.
Deffenbacher, J. K. (1978). Worry, emotionality, and task-generated interference in test anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 248-254
De Koninck, J., Lorrain, D., Christ, G., Proulx, G., & Coulombe, D. (1989) Intensive language learning and increases in rapid eye movement sleep: evidence of a performance factor. International Journal Psychophysiology, 8(1), 43-47.
Denollet, J. (2005). Standard Assessment of Negative Affectivity, Social Inhibition, and Type D Personality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 89-97.
Dewaele, J. M., & Furnham, A. (2000). Personality and speech production: a pilot study of second language learners. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 355-365.
DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale Development Theory and Applications. London: SAGE.
Dewey, J. (1915). The School and Society & the Child and the Curriculum. University of Chicago Press.
Dwyer, T., Blizzard, L., & Dean, K. (1996). Physical activity and performance in children. Nutrition Reviews, Apr.54(4 Pt 2), S27-S31.
Dwyer, T., Coonan, W. E., Leitch, D. R., Hetzel, B. S., & Baghurst, R. A. (1983). Investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology, 12, 308-313.
Dwyer, T., Sallis, J. F., Blizzard, L., Lazarus, R., & Dean, K. (2001). Relation of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13, 225-237.
Dexter, T. (1999). Relationship between sport knowledge, sport performance and academic ability: empirical evidence from GCSE physical education. General certificate of secondary education. J Sport Sci., 17, 283-295.
Dutke, S., & Stober, J. (2001). Test anxiety, working memory, and cognitive performance: supportive effects of sequential demands. Cognition and Emotion, 15(3), 381-389.
Eggins, S. (2004). An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics. (2nd ed.). London: Continuum.
Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. L. (1990). Adult learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting. Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 311-327.
Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 67-89.
Elkhafaifi, H. (2005). Listening comprehension and anxiety in the Arabic language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 89(2), 206–220.
Ellis, N. (1994). Consciousness in second language learning: psychological perspectives on the role of conscious process in vocabulary acquisition. In J. H. Hulstijn & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Consciousness in Second Language Learning (pp. 37-56). Winterthur, Switzerland: AILA Review.
Ellis, N. C. (2002). Reflections on frequency effects in language processing. SSLA, 24, 297-339.
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language learning. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Eysenck, H. J., & Cookson, L. (1969). Personality and primary school children – ability and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 39, 109-130.
Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning, and memory: a reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 363-385.
Eysenck, M. W., & Calvo, M. G. (1992). Anxiety and performance: the processing efficiency theory. Cognition and Emotion, 6(6), 409-434.
Fallone, G., Owens, J. A., & Deane, J. (2002). Sleepiness in children and adolescents: clinical implications. Sleep Med Rev, 6, 287-306.
Feng, G. S., Cheng, J. W., & Yeng, X. Z. (2005). Study on the status quality of sleep-related influencing factors in medical college students. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 26(5), 328-331.
Fisher, N., Juszczak, L., & Friedman, S. B. (1996) Sports participation in an urban high school: Academic and psychologic correlates. Journal of Adolescent Health, 18, 329-334.
Fitzpatrick, M. F., Engleman, H., Whyte, K. F., Deary, I. J., Shapiro, C. M., & Douglas, N. J. (1991). Morbidity in nocturnal asthma: sleep quality and daytime cognitive performance. Thorax, 46, 569-573.
Friedman, R. C., Brigger, J. T., & Kornfield, D. S. (1971). The intern and sleep loss. N Engl J Med, 285, 201-203.
Ganzer, V. J. (1968). Effects of audience pressure and test anxiety on learning and retention in serial learning situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 194-199.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: the role of attitude and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1993). A student’s contributions to second language learning. part II: affective variables. Language Teaching, 26, 1-11.
Gaultney, J. F. (2010). The prevalence of sleep disorders in college students: impact on academic performance. Journal of American College Health, 59, 91-97.
Gil-Verona, J. A., Pastor, J. F., De Paz, F. J., Barbosa, M., Macias, J. A., Picornell, I., Rami-Gonzalez, L., Canizares4, S., & Boget, T. (2001). Neuropsychological study of the sleep-learning relationship. Neurobiology of Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle, 1(2), 82-86.
Goh, M., & Moore, C. (1987). Personality and academic achievement in three educational levels. Psychological Reports, 43, 71-79.
Gorman, C. (2002, June). The science of anxiety. Time, 47-54.
Gunderson, B., & Johnson, D. (1980). Building positive attitudes by using cooperative learning groups. Foreign Language Annals, 13, 39-43.
Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hall, J. K. (2002). Teaching and Researching Language and Culture. Edinburgh, England: Pearson Education Limited.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1975). Learning How to Mean: Explorations in the Development of Language. London: Edward Arnold.
Harrison, Y., & Horne, J. A. (1998). Sleep loss impairs short and novel language tasks having a prefrontal focus. J Sleep Res, 7, 95–100.
Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47-77.
Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 58-65.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom Anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.
Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language Anxiety: from Theory and Research to Classroom Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Huber, R., Ghilardi, M. F., Massimini, M., & Tononi, G. (2004). Local sleep and learning. Nature, 430(1), 78-81.
In’nami, Y. (2006). The Effects of Test Anxiety on Listening Test Performance. System, 34, 317-340.
Jacob, E., & Mattson, B. (1987). Using Cooperative Learning with Language Minority Students: A Report from the Field. Washington DC: Center for Language Education and Research. Center for Applied Linguistics.
Kiany, G. R. (1998). English proficiency and academic achievement in relation to extroversion: a preliminary study. International Journal of Applied Linguistic, 8(1), 113-129.
Killgore, W. D. S., Kahn-Greene, E. T., Lipizzi, E. L., Newman, R. A., Kamimori, G. H., & Balkin, T. J. (2008). Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills. Sleep Medicine, 9(5), 517-526.
Kim, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, K. D., Choi, K. G., & Lee, H. W. (2011). A survey of sleep deprivation patterns and their effects on cognitive functions of residents and interns in Korea. Sleep Medicine, 12(4), 390-396.
Krueger, G. P. (1989). Sustained work, fatigue, sleep loss and performance: a review of the issues. Work Stress, 3, 129-141.
Kunnan, A. J. (1998). An introduction to structural equation modeling for language assessment research. Language Testing, 15(3), 295-332.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. (1991). An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. New York: Longman.
Lee, S. P. (2011). Studies on the Teaching of Foreign Literature and Foreign Language Reading. Taipei, Taiwan: Kaun Tang International Publications.
Leow, R. P. (1997). Attention, awareness, and foreign language behavior. Language Learning, 47, 467-505.
Leow, R. P., Hsieh, H. C., & Moreno, N. (2008). Attention to form and meaning revisited. Language Learning, 58(3), 665-695.
Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (1993). How Languages are Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Long, M. (1989). Task, group, and task-group interaction. University of Hawaii Working Papers in English as a Second Language, 8, 1-26.
Lyon, G. R. (1996). The need for conceptual and theoretical clarity in the study of attention, memory, and executive function. In G. R. Lyon & H. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention Memory, and Executive Function (pp. 3 – 9). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Lyon, G. R., & Krasnegor, H. A. (1996). Attention, Memory, and Executive Function. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
MacIntyre, P. D. & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(1), 3-26.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second-language learning: toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39(2), 251-275.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991a). Investigating language class anxiety using focused essay technique. Modern Language Journal, 75, 296-304.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991b). Methods and results in the study of anxiety in language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41, 85-177.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994). The effects of induced anxiety on three stages of congive processing in computerized vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 1-17.
Martin, J. R. (1984) Types of writing in infants and primary school. In Unsworth, L (Ed.) Reading, Writing, and Spelling (pp. 34-55). Sydney: Macarthur Institute of Higher Education.
Matsuda, S., & Gobel, P. (2004). Anxiety and predictors of performance in the foreign language classroom. System, 32, 21-36.
McKhann, G., & Albert, M. (2002). Keep your brain young. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
McInnes, A., Humphries, T., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Tannock, R. (2003). Listening comprehension and working memory are impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder irrespective of language impairment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(4), 427-443.
Mols, F., & Denollet, J. (2010). Type D personality among noncardiovascular patient populations: a systematic review. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(1), 66-72.
Moody, R. (1988). Personality preferences and foreign language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 72(4), 389-401.
Morris, L. W., & Liebert, B. (1970). Relationship of cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety to physiological arousal and academic performance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35(3), 332-337.
Morris, L. W., Davis, M. A., & Hutchings, C. H. (1981). Cognitive and emotional components of anxiety: literature review and a revised worry-emotionality scale. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(4), 541-555.
Murray W, J., (1991). A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale, Sleep, 14(6), 540-545.
Nunan, D. (1989). Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
O’Connor, P. J., Petruzzello, S. J., Kubitz, K. A., & Robinson, T. L. (1995). Anxiety responses to maximal exercise testing. Br. J. Sp. Med., 29(2), 97-102.
Oh, J. (1992). The effects of L2 reading assessment methods on anxiety level. TESOL Quarterly, 26(1), 172-176.
Oh, S. Y., Kim, W. K., Jang, Y. A., Won, H. S., Lee, H. S., & Kim, S. H. (2003). Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary be0haviours and physical status. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr., 12(2), 186-192.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Bailey, P. & Daley, C. E. (2000). Cognitive, affective, personality and demographic predictors of foreign-language achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 3-14.
Oxford, R. L. (1992). Who are our students? A synthesis of foreign and second language research on individual differences. TESL Canada Journal, 9, 30-49.
Oxford, R. L., & Ehrman, M. E. (1993). Second language research on individual difference. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 188-205.
Pagel, J. F., & Kwiatkowski, C. F. (2010). Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels. Frontiers in Neurology, 1, 125.
Perez-Chada, D., Perez-Lioret, S., Videla, A. J., Cardinali, D., Bergna, M. A., Fernandez-Acquier, M., Larrateguy, L., Zabert, G. E., & Drake, C. (2007). Sleep disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness are associated with poor academic performance in teenagers. A study using The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Sleep, 30(12), 1698-1703.
Phillips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. Modern Language Journal, 76, 14-26.
Pilcher, J. J., & Huffcutt, A. I. (1996). Effect of sleep deprivation on performance: a meta-analysis. Sleep, 19, 318-326.
Pilcher, J. J., McClelland, L. E., Moore, D. D., Haarmann, H., Baron, J., Wallsten, T. S., & McCubbin, J. A. (2007). Language performance under sustained work and sleep deprivation conditions, Aviation, Space and Environmental. Medicine, 78(5), B25-B38.
Popper, K. (1994). Knowledge and the Body-Mind Problem. London, Routledge.
Posner, M. I., & Petersen, S. E. (1990). The attention system of: the human brain. Annual. Review Neuroscience, 13, 25-42.
Ramsay, R.W. (1968). Speech patterns and personality. Language and Speech, 11, 54-63.
Randazzo, A. C., Muehlbach, M. J., Schweitzer, P. K., & Walsh, J. K. (1998). Cognitive function following acute sleep restriction in children ages 10-14. Sleep, 21(8), 861-868.
Ratey, J. J. (2008). Spark: the Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain. New York: Hachette.
Regestein, Q., Natarajan, V., Pavlova, M., Kawasaki, S., Gleason, R., & Koff, E. (2010). Sleep debt and depression in female college students. Psychiatry Research, 176(1), 34-39.
Rossier, J. (1976). Extroversion-Introversion as a Significant Variable in the Learning of Oral English as a Second Language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
Russo-Neustadt, A. A. & Chen, M. J. (2005). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and antidepressant activity. Curr. Pharm. Des., 11, 1495-1510.
Rutherford, W. E. (1987). Second Language Grammar: Learning and Teaching. London: Longman.
Saito, Y., Garza, T., & Horwitz, E. (1999). Foreign language reading anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 83, 202-218.
Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., & Rosengard, P. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 127-134.
Sanchez-Marin, M., Rejano-Infant, E., & Rodriguez-Troyano, Y. (2001). Personality and academic productivity in the university student. Social Behavior and Personality, 29, 299-305.
Sarason, I. G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 929-938.
Sawyer, M., & Ranta, L. (2001). Aptitude, individual differences, and instructional design. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction (pp. 319-353). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129-158.
Schmidt, R. (1993). Awareness and second language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 206-226.
Schmidt, R. (1994). Deconstruction consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics. In J. H. Hulstijn & R. Schmidt (Eds.), AILA Review11 (pp. 11-26). Winterthur, Switzerland: AILA.
Schmidt, R. (Ed.). (1995). Attention and Awareness in Foreign Language Learning. University of Hawaii Press.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction (pp. 3-32). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Segalowitz, N., & Frenkiel-Fishman, S. (2005). Attention control and ability level in a complex cognitive skill: attention shifting and second-language proficiency. Memory & Cognition, 33(4), 644-653.
Sergeant, J. (1996). A theory of attention: an information processing perspective. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, Memory, and Executive Function (pp. 57-69). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Sejnowski T. J., & Destexhe, A. (2000). Why do we sleep? Brain Res, 886, 208–223.
Sharan, S., Kussell, R., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Bejarano, Y, Raviv, S., & Sharan, Y (1985). Cooperative learning effects on the ethnic relations and achievement in Israeli junior high school classrooms. In R. Slavin et al. (Eds.), Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn (pp. 314-344). New York: Plenum.
Sharp, A. (2008). Personality and Second Language Learning. Asian Social Science, 4(11), 17-25.
Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness-raising and the second language learner. Applied Linguistics, 2, 159-168
Sharwood Smith, M. (1991). Speaking to many minds: on the relevance of different types of language information for the L2 learner. Second Language Research, 7, 118-132.
Shek, D. T. L. (1993). The Chinese version of the state-trait inventory: its relationship to different measures of psychological well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49(3), 349-358.
Shephard, R. J. (1996). Habitual physical activity and academic performance. Nutrition Reviews, Apr.54(4 Pt 2), S32-S36.
Shephard, R. J. (1997). Curricular physical activity and academic performance. Pediatric Exercise Science, 9, 113-126.
Shephard, R. J., Volle, M., Lavallee, H., LaBarre, R., Jequier, J. C., & Rajic, M. (1984) Required physical activity and academic grades: A controlled longitudinal study. In. J. Ilmarinen & L. Valimaki (Eds.), Children and Sport (pp. 58-63). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Shomoossi, N., & Kassaian, Z. (2009). Variation of test anxiety over listening and speaking test performance. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 3(1), 65-78.
Siegman, A.W. (1978). The meaning of silent pauses in an interview. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166, 642-654.
Siegman, A.W., & Pope, B. (1965). Personality variables associated with productivity and verbal fluency in the initial interview. In B. Compton, (Ed.), Proceedings of the 73rd Annual Conference of the APA (pp. 273-274).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Sigfusdottir, I. D., Kristjansson, A. L., & Allegrante, J. P. (2007). Health behavior and academic achievement in Icelandic school children. Health Education Research, 22(1), 70-80.
Simard, D., & Wong, W. (2001). Alertness, orientation, and detection: the conceptualization of attentional functions in SLA. SSLA, 23, 103-124.
Singh, A., Uijtdewilligen, L., Twisk, J. W. R., Mechelen, W., & Chinapaw, J. J. M. (2012). Physical activity and performance at school. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 166(1), 49-55
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold.
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. New York: Oxford University Press.
Skehan, P. & Foster, P. (2001). Cognition and tasks. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction (pp. 183-205). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Sloan, B., & Feldstein, S. (1977). Speech tempo in introversion and extraversion. Paper presented at a meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.
Smith, C. (1995). Sleep states and memory process. Behav. Brain Res., 69, 137-145.
Smith, M. E., McEvoy, L. K., & Gevins, A. (2002). The impact of moderate sleep loss on neurophysiologic signals during working-memory task performance. Sleep, 25(7), 56-66.
Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L.& Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAT Manual: for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory ("Self-Evaluation Questionnaire"), Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Strohle, A. (2009). Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders. J Neural Transm, 116, 777-784.
Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Setting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tanaka, J. S. (1993). Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation modes. In K. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (pp.10-39), Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Tapasak, R. C., Roodin, P. A. & Vaught, G. M. (1978). Effects of extraversion, anxiety, and sex on children's verbal fluency and coding task performance. Journal of Psychology, 100, 49-55.
Taylor, D. J. & McFatter, R. M. (2003). Cognitive performance after sleep deprivation: does personality make a difference. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(7), 1179-1193.
Taylor, L. L., Guiora, A. Z., Catford, J. C., & Lane, H. L. (1969). The role of personality variables in second language behavior. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 10(6), 463-477.
Ting, H., Wong, R. H., Yang, H. J., Lee, S. P., Lee, S. D., & Wang, L. (2011). Sleep-disordered breathing, behavior, and academic performance in Taiwan schoolchildren. Sleep Breath, 15, 91-98.
Tomlin, R. S. & Villa, V. (1994). Attention in cognitive science and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16(2), 183-203.
Tononi, G., & Cirelli, C. (2001). Some considerations on sleep and neural plasticity. Arch Ital Biol, 139, 221–241.
Trost, S. G. (2007). Active education: physical education, physical activity and academic performance. Active Living Research, Fall, 1-4.
Truscott, J. (1998). Noticing in second language acquisition: a critical review. Second Language Research, 14(2), 103-155.
VanPatten, B. (1990). Attending to form and content in the input: a experiment in consciousness. SSLA, 12, 287-301.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walker, M. P., & Stickgold, R. (2006). Sleep, memory, and plasticity, Annu. Rev. Psychol., 57, 139-166.
Williams, H. L., Lubin, A., & Goodnow, J. J. (1959). Impaired performance with acute sleep loss. Psychol Monogr, 73, 1-26.
Williamson, J. W. (2006). Brain activation during physical activity. In E. O. Acevedo & Ekkekakis (Eds.), Psychobiology of physical activity (pp.29-42). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-based Learning. London: Longman.
Wolfson, A. R. & Carskadon, M. A. (2003). Understanding adolescents’ sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6), 491-506.
Young, D. J. (1990). An investigation of students’ perspectives on anxiety and speaking. Foreign Language Annals, 23, 539-553.
Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: what does language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 426-439.
Young, D. J. (1992). Language anxiety from the foreign language specialist’s perspective: interview with Krashen, Omaggio Hadley, Terrell, and Rardin. Foreign Language Annals, 25, 157-172.
Young, D. J. (1999). Affect in foreign language and second language learning: a practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top