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研究生:曾英宏
研究生(外文):Tseng, Yinghung
論文名稱:北愛爾蘭議題之研究:共識民主的觀點
論文名稱(外文):A study on Northern Ireland: With a view of Consociational Democracy
指導教授:宋興洲宋興洲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sung, Hsingchou
口試委員:李大中陳建仁
口試委員(外文):Li, DajungChen, Chienjen
口試日期:2012-06-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:政治學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:共識民主少數否決權多數決模型廣底行政團
外文關鍵詞:Consociational DemocracyMinority Veto RightsMajoritarian ModelBroadly Based Executive
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:86
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北愛爾蘭議題可謂當代最具戲劇性的區域爭議,在爭議各方長期競相使用武力展開各種規模大小不一、隨機或有特定對象的、有計畫或無計畫的仇殺屠殺暗殺後,爭議雙方卻在1993年開始進行和平對話,嘗試以和平手段來解決爭議。雖然和平之路並非一帆風順,但迄今雙方仍在此路徑上堅持前進。相對於同時期盧安達的種族滅絕大屠殺(1994年4月到6月)、南斯拉夫內戰中的種族清洗(ethnic cleansing),北愛爾蘭爭議的和平進展更成為後冷戰紛亂的國際社會中令人欣喜與訝異的現象。

「何以仇怨糾葛如此之深的北愛爾蘭問題,竟能朝和平解決的方向發展?這種進展是否能夠持續下去?」這是所有關心國際社會的人在見到今日北愛爾蘭的和平進展時,都會產生的疑惑。當代許多區域衝突中的弱勢者以激進手段尋求正義卻反削弱其正當性之時,唯有同樣採取激進手段的北愛共和軍與新芬黨,能在包括英倫三島在內的全世界獲得高度的同情。

在思索北愛問題時,本論文認為,北愛爭議的成因絕非只是宗教信仰與族群文化認同的衝突,而是源自於藏在宗教外衣內的民族認同和政治及社會資源的分配不公。因此,本論文假設,近年來北愛爭議的緩解,乃在後冷戰時代歐洲區域發展與不列顛、北愛爾蘭社會對和平解決北愛問題的需求增強下,爭議雙方有意識地以共識民主( Consensus Democracy )的憲政機制安排來重新進行資源的分配,之後新的資源分配在促使和平互動上的實際效果,又進一步強化了這些憲政機制安排。本論文的目的,即在經由對北愛爭議的形成與發展過程的解析,證立上述的假設。

目錄

第一章 緒論 .............................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的.....................................1
第二節 研究途徑與研究方法..................................2
第三節 重要名詞與概念界定..................................5
第四節 研究範圍與限制.....................................9

第二章 北愛爾蘭問題的生成與發展............................11
第一節 宗教改革與群體認同爭議的興起.........................11
第二節 多數決運作下的北愛自治政府..........................12
第三節 多數制自治政府的瓦解與直接統治.......................15

第三章 爭議與和解........................................19
第一節 愛爾蘭政府法與自由邦協議............................19
第二節 兩個統派的爭論:續留聯合王國還是加入愛爾蘭共和國.......21
第三節 建立一套大家都可以參與的制度........................25

第四章 共識民主的契機....................................43
第一節 和平協議的轉折....................................43
第二節 北愛特有的共識政治制度.............................44
第三節 走向長久和平......................................48

第五章 結論.............................................51
第一節 研究結論..........................................51
第二節 後續研究..........................................57

參考書目.................................................61

參考文獻

壹、中文部分
史明。2007。〈民主主義〉,收於氏著,《民主主義在西洋史上的定位》。台北:作者自版。
林文斌、劉兆隆譯,海伍德(Andrew Heywood)著。1998。《政治學》。台北市:韋伯。
林鐘雄。1987。《歐洲經濟發展史》,台北市:三民書局。
許介林譯,佐藤功著。1981。《比較政治制度》。台北市:正中書局。
施正鋒。1998。〈少數族群與國家〉,收於氏著,《族群與民族主義──集體認同的政治分析》。台北市:前衛。
張佛泉。1994。〈主權之謎〉,收於東海大學政治系友會編,《張佛泉教授論文集》。台中市:東海大學政治系友會。
蔡啟清。2001。〈破解政府體制的迷思〉,收於氏著,《政黨與選舉論著集》。台中市:東海大學政治系。
鄒文海。2000。《各國政府及政治》。台北市:國立編譯館。
鄒文海。1984。《政治學》。台北市:三民書局。
鄒文海。1974。《比較憲法》。台北:三民書局。
薩孟武。1983。《政治學》。台北市:三民書局。



貳、西文部分
(I) Books
Adams, Gerry, 1994, Free Ireland. Colorado: Roberts Rinehart.
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Archer, Thomas, 1883, Glastone and his Contemporaries, Fifty Years of Social and Political Progress. London: Blackie& Son.
Ardagh, John, 2000, Ireland and the Irish. London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd.
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Bell, J. Bowyer, 1993, The Irish Troubles: A Generation of Violence 1967-1992. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Boyce, David George, 1995, Nationalism in Ireland. London: Routledge.
Boyce, D. C., 1996, the Irish Question and British Politics, 1868-1996. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Boyle, Kevin and Tom Hadden, 1994, Northern Ireland: the Choice. London: Penguin.
Breadun, De Deaglan, 2001, The Far Side of Revenge. Dublin: the Collins Press.
Brown, Terence, 1981, Ireland: A Social andCcultural History 1922-85. London: Fontana.
Catterall, Peter and Sean Mc Dougall, 1996 , The Northern Ireland Question in British Politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Collier, Ruth B. and David Collier, 1991, Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Princeton. N.J. :Princeton University Press.
Coogan, Tim Pat, 2005, 1916: The Easter Rising, London: Phoenix.
Coogan, Tim Pat, 1989, The IRA, Glasgow: Fontana Books.
Coogan, Tim Pat,1986, Michael Collins. London: Arrow.
Dahl, Robert A.,1956, A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Drower, George, 1995, John Hume: Man of Peace. London: Vista.
Edwards, Ruth Dudley, 2009, The Omagh Bombing and the Families’ Pursuit of Justice. London: Harvill Secker.
Fulton, John,1991, The Tragedy of Belief, Division, Politics, and Religion in Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gellner, Ernest, 1983, Nations and Nationalism. New York: Cornell University Press.
Gutierrez, Gustavao, 1982, The Liberation of Theology. New York: Orbis.
Harkness, David, 1996, Ireland in the Twentieth Century. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Heinz, Eulau and James G. March, 1969, Political Science. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Hennessey,Thomas, 2001, The Northern Ireland Peace Process. New York: Palgrave.
Jowell, Jeffrey and Dawn Oliver, 1994, The Changing Constitution, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kearny, Richard, 1997, Post nationalist Ireland. London: Routledge.
Kee, Robert, 1982, Ireland: A History. London: Abacus.
Keogh, Dermot, 1994, Twentieth Century Ireland: Nation and State. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan
Langdon, Julia, 2001, Mo Mowlam, London: Warner Books.
Lever, Michael and Kenneth A. Shepsle, 1994, Cabinet Ministers and Parliamentary Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lijphart, Arend, 1999, Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-six Countries. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, Arend, 1984, Democracies:Patterns of Majoritarian & Consensus Government in Twenty-one Countries. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Lijphart, Arend, 1977, Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
McDougall, Linda, 2001, Cherie. London: Politico’s.
McGarry, John, 2001, Northern Ireland and the Divided World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McKittrick , David, and David McVea, 2001, Making Sense of the Troubles: The Story of the Conflict in Northern Ireland, London: Penguin Books.
Mowlam, Mo, 2003, Momentum, London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Norman, E. R, 1965, the Catholic Church and Ireland in the Age of Rebellion. London: Longmans.
O’Connor, Ulick, 1989, The Troubles:, The Struggle for Irish Freedom 19212-1922. London: Mandarin.
O’Mahony, Patrick and Gerard Delanty, 2001, Rethinking Irish History, Nationalism, Identity and Ideology. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Ógráda, Cormac, 1999, Black ′47 and beyond, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Oliver, Dawn, 2003, Constitutional Reform in the U.K. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dunleavy, Patrick and Andrew Gamble and Richard Heffernan and Gillian Peele, eds., 2003, Developments in British politics 7. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Peters, B. Guy, 1999, Institutional Theory in Political Science: the New Institutionalism. London; New York : Continuum.
Ranney, Austin, 1996, Governing: An Introduction to Political Science, 7thed... Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall International, Inc..
Stoker, Gerry and David Wilson, 2004, British Local Government into the 21st Century. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
The Institute of Contemporary History, 2000, United Kingdom’s System of Government. London: Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
Thelen , Kathleen and Sven Steinmo,1992, “Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics,” in Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen and Frank Longstreth, eds., Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Turpin, Colin, 1985, British Government and the Constitution. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Wade, E. C. S., and A. W. Bradley , 1991, Constitutional and Administrative Law. London: Longman
Watt, David, 1981, the Constitution of Northern Ireland. London: Heinemann.
Whyte, John H, 1984, Church and State in modern Ireland 1923-79. Dublin: Gill and MacMillan,
Wilson, David and Chris Game, 2006, Local Government in the United Kingdom 4th ed. Palgrave. Basingstoke: Macmillan.


(II)Periodicals
Hall, Peter and Rosemary C. R. Taylor, 1996, “Political Science and Three Institutionalism.” Political Studies, vol.44, No.5, pp.936-957.
Krasner, Stephen D., 1984,“Approaches to the State: Alternative Conceptions and Historical Dynamics.” Comparative Politics, Vol.16: No.1, pp.223-246.
March, James G. and Johan P. Olsen,1984, “The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life.” American Political Science Review, Vol.78, pp.734-749.
Norgarrd, Asbjorn Sonne,1996, “Rediscovering Reasonable Rationality in Institutional Analysis.” European Journal of Political Research, Vol.29, pp.45-51.
(III)Network
Sunningdale Agreement 1973. (http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/sunningdale/agreement.htm)
Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985. (http://www. homesteader.com/agreement.htm)
European Charter for Regional or Minority languages 1992. (http://www.coe.fr/eng/ legaltxt/148e.htm)
Downing Street Declaration 1993. (http://old.emigrant.ie/emigrant/historic/peace. htm)
New Framework for Agreement 1995. (http://www.irlgov.ie/iveagah/angloirish/ frameworkdocument/default.htm)
A Framework for Accountable Government in Northern Ireland 1995. (http://www2. nio.giv.uk/framwork.htm)
Northern Ireland Act 1996. (http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/peace/docs/ac290496.htm)
Northern Ireland Peace Agreement 1998 (又稱為Belfast Agreement、或Good Friday Agreement).(http://www.irish-times.com/irish-times/paper/1998/0410/agreement. html、或http://www.nio.gov.uk/issues/agreement.htm)
Human Rights Act 1998. (http://www.hmso.gov.hk/acts/acts1998/19980042.htm)
Northern Ireland Act 1998. (http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980047.htm

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