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研究生:陳建智
研究生(外文):Chien-Chih Chen
論文名稱:利用空氣間隔式薄膜蒸餾法進行海水淡化之研究
論文名稱(外文):Desalination by air gap membrane distillation
指導教授:黃孟槺
指導教授(外文):Meng-Kang Huang
口試委員:王文王滿生潘本立
口試委員(外文):Man-Sheng Wang
口試日期:2012-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:薄膜蒸餾海水淡化Memstill(海水淡化荷蘭文)疏水薄膜空氣間隔式薄膜蒸餾
外文關鍵詞:Membrane distillation(MD)DesalinationMemstillHydrophobic MembraneAGMD
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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薄膜蒸餾(membrane distillation,MD)為近來被重視發展的一種技術,其特色為具有裝置簡單、可模組化、低成本、高介面面積等多方面之優點,氣隔式薄膜蒸餾原理乃是利用提升熱流體端的溫度差以及飽和蒸汽壓差為驅動力,以促使水蒸氣通過一多孔性疏水薄膜,再由冷流體端冷卻水蒸氣變成餾出液,進而達到分離的效果。
本研究以聚四氟乙烯薄膜(PTFE)利用空氣間隔式薄膜蒸餾系統模擬蒸餾海水,主要探討系統內流體流動型態對薄膜蒸餾之滲透通量的影響情形,預估蒸餾海水之理論滲透通量。固定冷卻水冷流體溫度在室溫25℃,增加熱流體的溫度差,以提升薄膜蒸餾的效率和純水產率。針對空氣間隔式薄膜蒸餾做海水淡化,根據不同之操作條件討論:(一)熱流體進口溫度、(二)流體體積流量、(三)薄膜孔隙尺寸、(四)NaCl濃度,進而得知在不同條件下所得到的滲透液純水產率與NaCl的去除率。研究結果顯示,熱進料溫度和冷熱流體流量增加,NaCl的去除率及純水的生產量也會增加。薄膜孔徑的大小對於去除NaCl沒有很大影響,但它會直接影響產水率。


The membrane distillation (MD) has recently been developed to become an important technology in desalination become it owns some advantages,such as:simple design with modularity,high level of interface area and low installation and operating costs. Membrane distillation uses the driving forces coming from and the difference of vapor pressure across the membrane and the temperature difference between the hot sea water and the cold water,which is the difference between MD and other membrane technology for separation. In MD technology,the water vapor will pass a porous hydrophobic membrane and then the water comes out after the vapor goes through the cold end.
In this study,Teflon film PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethene) air gap membrane was used in the system to distill the simulated sea water,investigate the influence of the fluid flow pattern on the flux of permeation and estimate the theoretical flux of permeation. The water temperature at the cold end was set at 25℃ and the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluid was changed to enhance the efficiency of MD and the production of pure water. Based on the air gap membrane distillation model for desalination,there were four key factors:(a).the hot fluid inlet temperature (b). the volume of fluid flow (c). the size of membrane pores (d). sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration. Which would affect the water production and NaCl removal,to be discussed in this study. The experimental results showed that both of the NaCl removal rate and the water production were be increased with the hot fluid inlet temperature and the volume of fluid flow. The size of membrane pores did not affect the removal of NaCl that much but it would affect the water production rate.


目錄

摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2 薄膜分離技術簡介 2
1.3 薄膜蒸餾 4
1.4 研究目的 6
第二章文獻回顧 9
2.1 薄膜蒸餾相關歷史發展與研究 9
2.2 薄膜蒸餾類型介紹 13
2.2.1 直接接觸式薄膜蒸餾 13
2.2.2 空氣間隙式薄膜蒸餾 13
2.2.3 空氣掃掠式薄膜蒸餾 14
2.2.4 真空式薄膜蒸餾 14
2.3 薄膜之性質 14
2.4 影響滲透通量的因素 15
2.5 提高滲透通量的方法 17
第三章相關理論與計算 21
3.1 空氣間隔式薄膜蒸餾理論分析之假設 21
3.2 空氣間隔式薄膜蒸餾之輸送現象 24
3.2.1 質傳通量 24
3.2.2 熱傳通量 24
3.2.3 質量與能量平衡 27
3.2.4 質傳與熱傳係數 29
3.3 極化現象 32
3.3.1 溫度極化 32
3.3.2 濃度極化 33
第四章實驗設備與方法 34
4.1 實驗裝置與測量儀器 34
4.2 實驗藥品與薄膜材料 41
4.2.1 實驗藥品 41
4.2.2 薄膜材料 41
4.3 實驗步驟與方法 42
4.3.1 實驗流程圖 42
4.3.2 操作條件 44
4.3.3 實驗流量調整與雷諾數計算 45
第五章結果與討論 54
5.1 PTFE複合薄膜分析與探討 54
5.1.1薄膜製作與選擇 54
5.1.2 薄膜結構分析 55
5.2參數影響分析 60
5.2.1 孔徑 60
5.2.2 孔隙度 62
5.2.3 熱流體進料溫度 64
5.3 NaCl含量的分析 67
5.4 不同條件下滲透通量與NaCl去除率的表現 68
5.4.1 熱進料溫度對滲透通量的影響 68
5.4.2 熱進料濃度對滲透通量的影響 73
5.4.3 熱進料溫度對NaCl去除率的影響 81
5.4.4 NaCl去除率與滲透通量在NaCl濃度3.5 wt %的討論 87
第六章結論 90
參考文獻 92
符號說明 98


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