跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.204.48.69) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/27 23:19
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:蕭瓊茹
研究生(外文):Chiung-Ju Hsiao
論文名稱:資源回收再利用產品之環境衝擊評估-以燈管及乾電池為例
論文名稱(外文):Environmental Impact Assessment of Resource Recycling Products - A Case Study of Fluorescent Lamps and Dry Batteries
指導教授:胡憲倫胡憲倫引用關係
口試委員:許家偉洪明龍李育明
口試日期:2012-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:生命週期衝擊評估碳足跡資源回收再利用燈管鹼性電池
外文關鍵詞:Life Cycle Impact AssessmentCarbon FootprintResource RecyclingFluorescent LampsAlkaline Batteries
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:21
  • 點閱點閱:564
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:109
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
鑒於近年來地球暖化造成的氣候變遷及有限資源帶來的危機,將會使人類的生存條件隨著環境破壞與資源枯竭而消失,於是各國政府紛紛實施永續物質管理的策略,為的是有效利用資源與延長資源的使用壽命,並朝向資源循環的永續利用與發展,乃為世界經濟發展之潮流,其中資源回收再利用更為其主要作法之一。
而我國回收體系已行之有年,回收處理成效良好,目前有10種產品列入公告回收。例如廢棄燈管與鹼性電池,在國內回收率達8成以上,並經由回收廠資源化的處理技術衍生的再生料,再製成的再生產品,其與原生產品相較下,可有效降低對環境之衝擊。緣此,本研究透過生命週期評估來探討燈管與乾電池對環境的衝擊與碳績效,其兩者產品之比較基準分別為一根T9-40 W(使用壽命10,000小時)的燈管及一顆AA鹼性電池,作為做為兩者原生產品及再生產品之研究的比較對象。
研究結果顯示燈管與乾電池在環境衝擊方面,皆以原生產品對環境的衝擊高於再生產品。碳足跡方面,以三波長燈管碳足跡309.23公斤當量為最高,其次為一般燈管的碳足跡309.21公斤當量,最低則為環保再生燈管碳足跡309.10公斤當量,而環保再生燈管在生命週期各階段之主要減碳效益於原料階段(24.30%);原生乾電池總碳排放為18.16公斤當量高於再生乾電池總碳排放9.06公斤當量,而再生乾電池於生命週期之總減碳效益為50.11%,棄置階段的減碳效益達99.98%,原料階段的減碳效益為27.59%。
此外,進一步透過敏感度分析環保再生燈管之汞、螢光粉、玻璃的再利用率與再生乾電池之鐵、鋅、二氧化錳的再利用率對環境之影響,得知在環保再生燈管與再生乾電池提高其再生料的再利用率,有顯著降低對環境的影響。另依據情境推估結果,於100年回收的廢T9燈管中,若使用環保再生燈管替代一般燈管可減少約437公噸的二氧化碳排放;於99年回收的廢鹼性電池中,若使用再生乾電池替代原生乾電池約減少149,557公噸的二氧化碳排放。


Due to the crisis brought by the climate change and limited resources, the living conditions of mankind are deteriorating. It is believed that climate change and limited resources are the greatest threats facing the planet nowadays. In order to have a sustainable use of natural resources, the governments all over the world have developed a policy, Sustainable Material Management (SMM), for efficiently utilizing resources and extending their usage. And recycling is one of the most important practices among the SMM.
The recycling system has been established and successfully operating for years in Taiwan. Currently, it has ten kinds mandated recycled products and several have fair high recycling rates, such as the recycling rates of waste fluorescent lamps and alkaline batteries are both more than 80%. By comparing the products made by recycled materials with ones made by virgin materials, one can find big differences of the environmental impact between the two. This study, based on the life cycle assessment (LCA), is trying to investigate the environmental impact and carbon emissions differences between the virgin products and recycled products. And the target products are fluorescent lamps and alkaline batteries. Bases for conducting this comparison study are one T9-40 wattage fluorescent lamp with life-span of 10,000 hours and an AA alkaline battery, respectively.
The results showed that both virgin products have higher carbon emissions than the recycled products, especially for the alkaline batteries; the carbon emissions for virgin alkaline battery and recycled alkaline battery are 18.16 kgCO2-e and 9.06 kgCO2-e, respectively. However, the difference for the fluorescent lamp is only marginal; and the total carbon emissions for virgin fluorescent lamp and recycled fluorescent lamp are 309.21 kgCO2-e and 309.09 kgCO2-e, respectively. Compared to the virgin fluorescent lamp, for recycled fluorescent lamp the stage which creates biggest carbon emissions reduction is the raw materials stage, and the reduction is 24.30%.
Sensitivity analyses of the reused rate of mercury, fluorescent powder and glass for the recycled fluorescent lamp and the reused rate of iron, zinc and manganese dioxide for the alkaline battery on the environmental impact were also conducted. Results showed that increase the reused rate can significantly reduce environmental impact. Results from a scenario analysis also indicated that to use recycled fluorescent lamps to replace all the virgin fluorescent lamps and to use recycled alkaline batteries to replace all the virgin alkaline batteries can reduce up to 437 tons in 2011and 149,557 tons carbon dioxide emissions in 2010, respectively.


摘 要  i
ABSTRACT  iii
誌 謝  v
目 錄  vi
表目錄  viii
圖目錄  x
第一章 緒論  1
  1.1研究背景  1
  1.2研究動機與目的  2
  1.3研究架構  4
第二章 文獻回顧  6
  2.1生命週期評估與管理  6
   2.1.1生命週期評估  6
   2.2.2生命週期衝擊評估  9
   2.2.3生命週期管理  15
   2.2.4生命週期評估與管理之工具與應用  18
  2.2碳足跡  22
   2.2.1碳足跡之定義  24
   2.2.2碳足跡之類型  26
   2.2.3碳足跡計算相關準則  30
   2.2.4產品類別規則(Product Category Rules)  33
  2.3永續資源利用  35
   2.3.1永續物質管理發展現況  35
   2.3.2資源回收再利用產業相關應用研究  38
   2.3.3生命週期評估應用於資源回收再利用產品與其環境效益  41
  2.4照明光源與電池發展現況及其資源化技術介紹  48
   2.4.1照明光源發展現況及其資源化技術  48
   2.4.2電池發展現況及其資源化技術  53
第三章 研究方法與內容  56
  3.1研究流程  56
  3.2盤查個案背景說明  57
  3.3產品類別規則  58
  3.4再利用率的計算方式  60
  3.5環境衝擊的計算方式  61
  3.6碳足跡的計算方法  63
  3.7敏感度分析  64
第四章 研究結果與討論  65
  4.1燈管環境衝擊評估結果  65
   4.1.1研究目標及系統範疇  65
   4.1.2盤查結果  67
   4.1.3生命週期衝擊評估結果  73
   4.1.4碳足跡評估結果分析  83
  4.2乾電池環境衝擊評估結果  88
   4.2.1研究目標及系統範疇  88
   4.2.2盤查結果  90
   4.2.3生命週期衝擊評估結果  95
   4.2.4碳足跡評估結果分析  105
  4.3敏感度分析  109
   4.3.1燈管再利用率之敏感度分析  109
   4.3.2乾電池再利用率之敏感度分析  113
  4.4情境推估  116
  4.5小結  117
第五章 結論與建議  118
  5.1結論  118
  5.2建議  120
參考文獻  121


[1] 三橋規宏,朱麗真譯,綠色復甦時代-企業打敗不景氣的新藍海策略,台北:商周,2009。
[2] 李叢禎、蕭之情、李堅明、曾瓊瑤,「溫室氣體減量之遵循成本與健康附屬效益」,臺灣經濟預測與政策,第370卷,第三期,2007,第1-30頁。
[3] 李佩蓓,結合IO-LCA與碳足跡評估分析研究:以IC業為例,碩士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,台南,2011。
[4] 余柏緯,以生命週期評估法進行STN-LCD製造業環境操作績效指標之建立研究,碩士論文,台中師範學院環境教育研究所,台中,2004。
[5] 周貞貝、蘇銘千、陳羿孜、高年信,國際永續物質管理策略之探討,中華民國環境工程學會2010環境規劃與管理研討會,屏東,2010,第1-9頁。
[6] 林容瑋,產品服務系統之減碳評估-以洗衣機為例,碩士論文,國立臺北科技大學環境工程與管理研究所,台北,2011。
[7] 林献偉,產品碳足跡計算與環境績效分析研究─以網通產品為例,碩士論文,台北大學自然資源與環境管理研究所,台北,2010。
[8] 胡憲倫、許家偉,「生命週期評估(LCA)-結合社會衝擊之新趨勢」,永續產業發展雙月刊,第三十三期,2007,第24-33頁。
[9] 胡憲倫、王慧茹,第三類產品環境宣告之差異性比較研究─以國內面板產業為例,2009永續性產品與產業管理研討會論文集,台南,2009。
[10] 郭紋秀,結合生命週期評估及因素分解之研究:以火力發電廠個案為例,碩士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,台南,2009。
[11] 施勵行,綠色創新與產品開發,台中市;滄海,2010。
[12] 陳凱毅,資源化產業及產品之現況與發展探討,碩士論文,臺北市立教育大學環境教育與資源研究所,台北,2007。
[13] 張韋豪,台灣半導體產業環境管理與碳足跡現況及生命週期評估軟體需求調查,碩士論文,國立臺北科技大學環境工程與管理所,台北,2011。
[14] 張啟達、余騰耀,「國內資源化產業推動現況與成效」,環境工程會刊,第十六卷,第三期,2005,第40-45頁。
[15] 張憶琳,世界各國環境標誌(Ecolabel)現況之一,歐體組織,環保署網站,1995. http://epa.gov.tw/greenmark/mag/01/3.html
[16] 財政部關稅總局,統計資料庫查詢系統,http://www.customs.gov.tw/StatisticWeb/News.aspx,2011。
[17] 黃信凱,產品變異對生命週期評估影響之研究,碩士論文,國立成功大學機械工程學系,台南,2003。
[18] 董瑞安、吳先琪、張淑閔、姜懷之、林政鋒,廢筆記型電腦回收處理技術之評估研究-LCD回收處理技術可行性評估,行政院環保署資源回收管理基金管理委員會,2009。
[19] 經濟部工業局,資源再生對溫室氣體減量效益評析報告,2012。
[20] 經濟部標準檢驗局,CNS 14040:1997 環境管理系統-生命週期評估-原則與架構,1997。
[21] 經濟部能源局,照明系統Q&A節能技術手冊,2008。
[22] 經濟部能源局,2010年能源產業白皮書,2011。
[23] 楊英賢,生命週期評估與不確定性分析應用於火力發電與燃料選擇,博士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,台南,2008。
[24] 謝欣倩,生命週期評估的數據差異與衝擊模式比較-以電動手工具機為案例,碩士論文,國立交通大學環境工程系所,新竹,2008。
[25] 環保署,提升廢乾電池及廢照明光源回收處理成效暨回收清除處理成本調查專案工作計畫(EPA-97-HA14-03-A031),期末報告,2008。
[26] 環保署,綠色生活資訊網,2009,取自http://greenliving.epa.gov.tw/GreenLife/
[27] 環保署,環保統計資料庫,2012。
[28] 環保署,台灣產品碳足跡資訊網,2012。
http://cfp.epa.gov.tw/carbon/ezCFM/Function/PlatformInfo/FLabelApply/EFormInstruction.aspx
[29] 環保署,3R資源循環永續利用網,2012。http://www.ttv.com.tw/3R/default.aspx
[30] 顏晟容,台灣地區汞之物質流分析及其衝擊評估,碩士論文,國立臺北科技大學環境工程與管理所,台北,2011。
[31] 魏鈺峰,行動電話之生命週期評估研究,碩士論文,朝陽科技大學環境工程與管理研究所,台中,2005。
[32] Hawken, P., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L. H., 吳信如譯,綠色資本主義,台北:天下雜誌,2002。
[33] McDonough, W. and Braungart, M., 中國21世紀議程管理中心與中美可持續發展中心譯,從搖籃到搖籃綠色經濟的設計提案,野人,2008。
[34] Friedman, T. L., 邱羽先等譯,世界又熱、又平、又擠,台北市:天下雜誌,2008。
[35] Beyond Petroleum (BP), “What is a Carbon Footprint?,” 2007. Internet site:http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/STAGING/global_assets/downloads/A/ABP_ADV_what_on_earth_is_a_carbon_footprint.pdf.
[36] Blengini G. A., Busto M., Fantoni M. and Fino D., “Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA,” Waste Management, vol 32, no. 5, 2011, pp. 1-9.
[37] BSI, PAS 2050, “specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services,” London: British Standards Institute, 2008.
[38] BSI, PAS 2050, “specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services,” London: British Standards Institute, 2011.
[39] Burall, P., “Green-ness is good for you,” Design, 1994, pp. 22-24.
[40] Carbon Trust, “Product carbon 1.footprinting: the new business opportunity,” Experience from leading companies, 2008.
[41] Carbon N Zero, “Glossary of commonly used terms, Landcare Research,” 2008. Retrieved from http://www.carbonzero.co.nz/glossary.asp
[42] Carbon Footprint- Home of Carbon Management, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.carbonfootprint.com/
[43] Energetics, “The Reality of Carbon Neutrality,” London, 2007. www.energetics.com.au/file?node_id=21228.
[44] Environmental Technologies Action Plan (ETAP), “The Carbon Trust Helps UK Businesses Reduce their Environmental Impact,” Press Release, 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/etap/pdfs/jan07_carbon_trust_initiative.pdf.
[45] Flysjo, A., Cederberg, C., Johannesen, J. D., “Carbon Footprint and Labelling of Dairy Products – Challenges and opportunities,” Joint Actions on Climate Change, Aalborg/ Denmark, 2009.
[46] Galli, A., Wiedmann, T., Ercin, E., Knoblauch, D., Ewing, B., and Giljum, S., “Integrating Ecological, Carbon and Water footprint: Definition the "Footprint Family" and its Application in Tracking Human Pressure on the Planet,” Technical Document, 2011, pp. 13.
[47] Garrain, D., Marinez, P., Vidal, R. and Belles M. J., “LCA of thermoplastics recycling,” 3rd International Conference on Life Cycle Management, Zurich, 2007, pp. 27-29.
[48] GED net, “Global Type III Environmental Product Declarations Network (GED net),” 2005. http://www.gednet.org
[49] Hertwich, E. and Peters, G., “Carbon Footprint of Nations: A Global, Trade-Linked Analysis,” Environmental Science and Technology in press, 2009.
[50] Hill C., An introduction to Sustainable Resource Use, Stylus Pub Llc, 2011.
[51] Hunkeler, D., Saur, K., Jensen, A. A., Fretiere, J. P., Schmidt, W. P., Finkbeiner, M., Pedersen, C. S., Stranddorf, H. K., Christiansen, K. and Rebitzer, G., “Life Cycle Management-Definitions, Case Studies and Corporate Applications,” SETAC Working Group on LCM, Preliminary Edition, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2001.
[52] ICF Consulting (ICF), “Determination of the impact of waste management activities on greenhouse gas emissions: 2005 update,” final report, 2005.
[53] IKP of the University of Stuttgart, “Gabi 4 Manual,” Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Sciences, Gabi department, 2007.
[54] Intini F. and Kuhtz S., “Recycling in buildings: an LCA case study of a thermalinsulation panel made of polyester fiber, recycledfrom post-consumer PET bottles,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 16, no. 4, 2011, pp. 306-315.
[55] ISO, “Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Principles and Framework,” ISO 14040, 1997.
[56] ISO, “Environmental Management – Life Cycle assessment – Life Cycle Interpretation,” ISO 14043, 2000.
[57] ISO, “ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment Principles and Framework,” International Organization for Standardization, 2006.
[58] ISA, “A Definition of ''Carbon Footprint,” Research Report, UK, 2007.
[59] Jensen, A. A. and Remmen, A., “Background Report for a UNEP Guide to LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT-A Bridge to Sustainable Products,” Final Draft, 2004, pp. 1-106.
[60] Jinglan H. and Xiangzhi L., “Environmental assessment of recycled printing and writing paper: A case study in China,” Waste Management, vol. 32, no. 2, 2011, pp. 264-270.
[61] Jolliet O., “The LCIA midpoint-damage framework of the UNEP/SETAC life cycle initiative,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 9, 2004, pp. 394–404.
[62] Kerr, W. and Ryan, C., “Eco-efficiency gains from remanufacturing: A case study of photocopier remanufacturing at Fuji Xerox,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 9, no. 1, 2001, pp. 75-81.
[63] Kim B. and Neff R., “Measurement and communication of greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. food consumption via carbon calculators,” Ecological Economics, vol. 69, no. 1, 2009, pp. 186-196.
[64] Lee, K. H., “Integrating carbon footprint into supply chain management: the case of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in the automobile industry,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 19, no. 11, 2011, pp. 1216-1223.
[65] Li, Y., Muthu, S. S., Hu, J. Y. and Mok, P. Y., “Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, no. 2, 2011, pp. 469-475.
[66] Liqin, Y., “The Analysis on Carbon Footprint of Catering Products in High-star Hotels during Operation: Based on Investigation Conducted in parts of High-star Hotels in Ji’nan,” Energy Procedia, vol. 5, 2011, pp. 890-894.
[67] MCI, “MCi''s go green glossary,” 2008. Retrieved from http://www.mcicoach.com/gogreen/greenGlossary.htm
[68] Mont, O., and Lindhqvist, T., “The Role of Public Policy in Advancement of Product Service Systems,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 11, 2003, pp. 905-914.
[69] OECD, “Outcome of the First OECD Workshop on Sustainable Materials Management (ENV/EPOC/WGWPR/RD(2005)5/FINAL),” 1st Workshop on Sustainable Materials Management, Korea, 2005.
[70] OECD, “Questionnaire for the 2nd Survey on SMM-related Activities within OECD Countries,” 2nd Workshop on Sustainable Materials Management, Israel, 2008, pp.7-9.
[71] OECD, “A Report in the Framework of the Kobe 3R Action Plan,” Resource Productivity in the G8 and the OECD, 2012.
http://www.oecd.org/document/14/0,3746,en_2649_37465_47926478_1_1_1_37465,00.html
[72] Olivetti, E., Gregory, J. and Kirchain, R., “Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries With A Focus On End-of-Life,” National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 2011.
[73] Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST), “Carbon footprint of electricity generation,” POSTnote 268, Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, London, UK, 2006. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/postpn268.pdf.
[74] Patel, J., “Green sky thinking,” Environment Business, vol. 122, 2006, pp. 32.
[75] Peters, G. P., “Carbon footprints and embodied carbon at multiple scales,” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 2, 2010, pp. 245-250.
[76] Perugini F., Mastellone M. L. and Arena U., “A Life Cycle Assessment of Mechanical and Feedstock Recycling Options for Management of Plastic Packaging Wastes,” Environmental Progress, vol. 24, no. 2, 2005, pp. 137-153.
[77] Remmen, A. and Thrane, M., “Life Cycle Management,” Denmark, 2005, pp. 265-285.
[78] Pizzola, M., Christensena, P., Schmidta, J. and Thomsenb, M., “Impacts of “metals” on human health: a comparison between nine different methodologies for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA),” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 19, no. 6-7, 2011, pp. 646-656.
[79] PRe Consultants, “SimaPro 5.1 user manual,” PRe Consultants, The Netherlands, 1997.
[80] PRe Consultants, “SimaPro 7 Database Manual Methods library,” PRe Consultants, The Netherlands, 2008.
[81] Roy, R., “Sustainable product service systems,” Futures, vol. 32, no. 3, 2000, pp. 289-299.
[82] Ryding, S. O., Steen, B., Svensson, G., Karisson, L., Karisson, R., Neven, C. O. and Westerlund, G., “The EPS System - A Joint Scientific and Industrial Effort to Develop an Sustainability Based Managerial Tool for Life-Cycle Design of Products,” Int. conf. on EcoBalance, Japan, 1994.
[83] Shen L., Worrell E. and Patel M. K., “Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre recycling,” Rasources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, 2010, pp.34-52.
[84] Saur, K., Donato, G., Flores, E. C., Frankl, P., Jensen, A. A., Kituyi, E., Lee, K. M., Swarr, T., Tawfic, M. and Tukker, A., “Draft Final Report of the LCM Definition Study,” UNEP, Version 3.6, 2003, pp. 1-37.
[85] Scripps Institution of Oceanography NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, “CO2 Concentration at Mauna Loa Observatory,” Hawaii, 2011.
Retrieved from http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/climate/
[86] Simoes G. L., Xara S. M. and Bernardo C. A., “Life cycle assessment of a road safety product made with virgin and recycled HDPE,” Waste Management & Research, vol. 29, no. 4, 2010, pp. 414-422.
[87] Simoes G. L., Xara S. M. and Bernardo C. A., “Influence of the impact assessment method on the conclusions of a LCA study - Application to the case of a part made with virgin and recycled HDPE,” Waste Management & Research, vol. 29, no. 10, 2011, pp. 1018-1025.
[88] Society of Environment Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), “A Conceptual Framework for Life Cycle Impact Assessment,” Pensacola, FL, 1993.
[89] Sonnemann G., Castells F., Schuhmacher M. and Hauschild M., Integrated life-cycle and risk assessment for industrial processes, Lewis Publishers, 2004, pp. 75-114.
[90] UNEP, Life Cycle Assessment: What It Is and How to Do It, United Nations Environment Program, Nairobi, Kenya, 1996.
[91] USEPA, “Guidelines for Assessing the Quality of Life Cycle Inventory Analysis,” Office of Solid Waste, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA, 1995.
[92] USEPA, “Personal Computers,” USA, 2006, pp. 1-16.
[93] USEPA, “Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 2012.
[94] USEPA, “WARM BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW,” WARM Version 12, 2012, pp. 1-23.
[95] UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, “Life Cycle Management Definition Study: Second Draft Terms of Reference,” UNEP, 2002, pp. 1-11.
[96] UNEP, “UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management- A bridge to sustainable products,” France, 2006, pp. 6-21.
[97] United Nation Environment Programme(UNEP), “GLOBAL GREEN NEW DEAL POLICY BRIEF,” UNEP, 2009, pp. 1-2.
[98] United Nation Environment Programme(UNEP), “Towards a Green Economy Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication,” UNEP, 2011, pp. 14-24.
[99] Univ. of East Anglia, IPCC, 2011, ailable at http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/climate/
[100] von Wizsacker, E.U., Lovins, A.B. and Lovins, L.H., Factor Four: 96 Doubling Wealth, Halving Resource Use: A Report to the Club of Rome, London, Earthscan Publications Ltd, 1997.
[101] Wackernagel, M. and Rees, W. E., “Our Ecological Footprint - Reducing Human Impact on the Earth,” New Society Publishers Gabriola Island, B. C., Canada, 1996.
[102] Wenzel, H., Hauschild, M. and Alting, L., “Environmental Assessment of Products. Vol. 1: Methodology,” Tool and Case Studies in Product Development, Chapman and Hall, London, 1997.


連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top