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研究生:陳志成
研究生(外文):Chih-Cheng Chen
論文名稱:以不同農業廢棄物製備活性碳吸附除草劑(草脫淨)之研究
論文名稱(外文):Atrazine Adsorption by Activated Carbon Prepared from Various Agricultural Wastes
指導教授:曾昭衡曾昭衡引用關係
口試委員:陳孝行陳水田
口試日期:2012-01-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:草脫淨農業廢棄物活性碳等溫吸附模式
外文關鍵詞:Atrazineagriculture wasteactive carbonLangmuir adsorption mode
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草脫淨(Atrazine)在世界廣泛被使用,是最常使用的農業用殺草劑之一,但它屬於持久性有機污染物,不易分解,並且會從土壤中被沖刷到溪流或地下水中,在水中殘留相當長的時間。有研究指出,Atrazine會引起癌症及腫瘤,包括卵巢癌、乳癌、血癌、子宮癌及淋巴腺癌等,同時也是一種干擾內分泌的毒物會造成荷爾蒙失調,進而使動物在遺傳組成方面發育成錯誤性別。
針對此類除草劑的移除,活性碳吸附是有效且經濟的處理程序。本研究利用低成本的農業廢棄物(稻桿與蔗渣)以KOH兩段式化學活化法,可得到高比表面積之活性碳(分別為1084.46 m2/g與1324.62 m2/g)。並比較不同參數(Atrazine初始濃度、溫度、pH值)對吸附能力之影響,結果顯示稻桿與蔗渣活性碳對於Atrazine之最大吸附能力與Atrazine初始濃度成正比,與溫度成反比。但pH值對兩種活性碳之最大吸附能力則呈現相反的結果。在等溫吸附方面,兩種活性碳皆符合Langmuir等溫吸附模式,而擬二階動力學模式也可吻合吸附速率數據。稻桿與蔗渣活性碳對於Atrazine之吸附能力分別為189.67 mg/g與197.96 mg/g,其吸附能力優於商業活性碳。
依上述之結果,以KOH化學活化法將兩種農業廢棄物製備成活性碳,既可循環再利用農業廢棄物,減少空氣汙染與溫室效應,也可將Atrazine等持久性有機污染物從環境中移除。


Atrazine is widely used as herbicides to the agriculture. The character of this organic compound is a long-term pollutant, and not easy to break down. It sort out from soil while rain, flow into river and groundwater. Finally, Atrazine existed in a long period of time. In our study, Atrazine can cause cancer and tumor, like as ovarian cancer, Breast Cancer, Leukemia, Uterine cancer and Lymphatic cancer. It is also a toxicant, which disturbs endocrine and induce hormonal imbalance. To make matters worse, animals inherit wrong gender by genetic composition.
There is an economic and efficient procedure to remove this herbicide. We study the low cost agriculture waste can get largest surface by two step potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation method. (1084.46 m2/g and 1324.62 m2/g) From results of different parameters (ex: initial concentration, temperature and pH value), it show the Atrazine absorption of rice straws and sugar cane bagasses is positive to its initial concentration and negative to temperature. But conflicted evidence comes from these two activated carbon complexes by pH variable. In temperature constant, the characteristic of two activated carbon complexes follow Langmuir adsorption model. And absorbed rate also matched second-order kinetic model. Atrazine maximum absorbed rates are 189.67 mg/g in rice straw and 197.96 mg/g in sugar cane bagasse. They are better than commercial activated carbon.
As the following results, we synthesized an activated carbon complex by Potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation with two kinds of agriculture wastes. Both it recycles to reduce air pollution and Greenhouse effect, and clean up Atrazine from our environment.


摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iv
目 錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1活性碳總論 4
2.1.1 活性碳結構及分類 4
2.1.2 活性碳特性 5
2.1.3 活性碳之製法 8
2.1.4 活性碳之吸附現象 11
2.2 國內外處理稻及甘蔗之農業廢棄物文獻回顧 11
2.3 國內外處理Atrazine之文獻回顧 13
第三章 實驗設備與方法 16
3.1 實驗材料與藥品 18
3.1.1 藥品 18
3.1.2 實驗儀器及設備 18
3.2活性碳製備製程 21
3.2.1 原料前處理 21
3.2.2 碳化 21
3.2.3 活化前處理 21
3.2.4 活化 21
3.2.5 活化後處理 21
3.2.6 磨碎及過篩 22
3.3活性碳性質測定 23
3.3.1 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察 (SEM observations surface) 23
3.3.2 元素分析 (Elemental analysis) 23
3.3.3 產率(Production yield) 23
3.4 活性碳吸附實驗 24
3.4.1 (稻桿、蔗渣) 不同性質吸附實驗 24
3.4.2 (稻桿、蔗渣) 不同粒徑活性碳吸附實驗 24
3.4.3 (稻桿、蔗渣) 活性碳於不同溫度吸附實驗 24
3.4.4 (稻桿、蔗渣) 活性碳於不同pH值吸附實驗 24
3.4.5 平衡吸附量,qe (mg/g) 25
3.5分析方法 25
3.6檢量線製作 26
3.7吸附機制 26
3.7.1 動力學方程式 26
3.7.2 等溫吸附模式 27
第四章 結果與討論 29
4.1原始材料與活性碳基本性質比較 29
4.1.1 材料之產率分析 29
4.1.2 材料之元素分析 29
4.1.3 材料之比表面積分析 30
4.1.4 材料之SEM圖 32
4.1.5 原始材料與活性碳材料之吸附能力比較 36
4.2 不同參數對吸附能力之影響 37
4.2.1 活性碳粒徑對吸附能力之影響 37
4.2.2 不同Atrazine濃度對吸附能力之影響 39
4.2.3 不同pH值對吸附能力之影響 41
4.2.4 不同溫度對吸附能力之影響 42
4.3 自製活性碳與商業化活性之吸附能力比較 43
4.4 等溫吸附線模擬 45
4.5 動力學探討 46
第五章 結論與建議 51
5.1 結論 51
5.2 建議 52
參考文獻 53



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