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研究生:黃谷堯
研究生(外文):Ku-Yao Huang
論文名稱:室內空氣品質改善前後之健康效益-以電子業辦公室為例
論文名稱(外文):A study on Indoor Air Quality improvement and Exposure Health Effects-in Electronics industry offices
指導教授:曾昭衡曾昭衡引用關係
口試委員:胡石政洪明瑞
口試日期:2012-07-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:室內空氣品質致癌風險空氣資源整合效益模型
外文關鍵詞:Indoor Air QualityCancer Risk AssessmentAir Resources Co-Benefits Model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
電子產業為我國重要經濟發展之基礎,但多數電子廠房辦公區域為有效節約能源,限制空調換氣次數,加上工廠本身或廠區週圍的固定污染源污染,反而衍生出危害人體健康的問題,為了進一步了解電子廠廠辦合一辦公區的空氣品質現況,本研究以中部兩家電子公司4所辦公室為例,進行空氣污染物濃度測定,藉以說明辦公室空氣污染物現況及污染物特性,配合甲醛(HCOH)之致癌風險評估及以空氣資源整合健康效應模型(Air Resources Co-Benefits Model, ARCoB)評估一氧化碳(CO)、懸浮微粒(PM10)、臭氣(O3)之非致癌健康效應,以量化辦公室員工因室內空氣污染對人體健康的危害程度。
研究結果顯示,4所辦公室主要空氣污染物為甲醛(HCOH)、總揮發性有機物(TVOC)、二氧化碳(CO2)等3項,尤其是以甲醛(HCOH)最為嚴重,4所辦公室平均值為0.1 ppm-1 hr,高於中華民國室內空氣品質標準值(草案)第二類規範0.08 ppm-1 hr。
甲醛致癌風險評估結果顯示,4所辦公室平均風險值為1.52*10-5超出可接受風險值10-6約15.2倍,顯示甲醛濃度已對辦公室員工健康造成了危害。以辦公室C基準,依其工作形態不同,發現長時間處於作業廠房內的作業員,其風險值為3.95*10-5,已超出可接受風險值10-6 的39.5倍。
非致癌風險評估結果顯示,以空氣品質最差的辦公室C為基準,辦公室A較辦公室C,其終生平均壽命增加403.56 天/人-終生、每年醫療支出減少117.66 元/年-人 ; 辦公室B較辦公室C,其終生平均壽命增加419.62 天/人-終生、每年醫療支出減少 130.84元/年-人 ; 辦公室D較辦公室C,其終生平均壽命增加121.94 天/人-終、每年醫療支出減少 79.12元/年-人。辦公室C實施改善措施後,較改善前終生平均壽命增加222.92 天/人-終生、醫療支出減少52.71 元/年-人,其中又以 CO 的改善健康效應最為顯著,但增加引進外氣後,雖CO大幅下降,但引進室外之O3亦造成負面健康效應。


Electronic industry is the important basis of Taiwan’s economic development. However, in order to efficiently save energy, the office areas of most electronic workshops limit the ventilation frequency of the air conditioning, coupled with the pollution of stationary sources in the workshop itself or around it, deriving problems endangering people’s health. In order to further understand the current situation of air quality in the office areas of electronic workshops, this study takes 4 offices of two electronic companies in the central region as the examples to measure the concentration of air pollutants which reveals the current situation of air pollution in offices and the characteristics of pollutants, and together with the methods of carcinogenic risk assessment and air resources co-benefits model (ARCoB), this study conducts a quantitative study on the entent of danger of indoor air pollution on human health.
The study results show that the major air pollutants in the four offices are 03、CO2、HCOH, especially serious for HCOH (formaldehyde). The average concentration rate of the four offices is 1.0 ppm, which is higher than second-class norms of standards value (0.08 ppm-1 hr) set by the Environmental Protection Administration. The major reasons include the decoration materials containing HCOH (formaldehyde) and poor office ventilation.
The results of formaldehyde carcinogenic risk assessment show that the average risk value of four offices is 1.52 * 10-5 , about 15.2 times higher than the acceptable risk value of 10-6, which show that the concentration of formaldehyde has caused harms to the office employees’ health. Taking office C as the benchmark, according to the different patterns of work, it shows that the risk value of operators in workshops for a long time is 3.95*10-5, 39.5 times as the acceptable risk value of 10-6, which is mainly caused by the use of adhesive during the process of production.
According to the non-carcinogenic risk assessment, with office C as the benchmark, the average life of the staff in office A increases by 403.56 days (/person-life) and the medical care expenditures reduce by ﹩117.66 (/year-person); the average life of the staff in office B increases by 419.62 days (/person-life) and the medical care expenditures reduce by ﹩130.84 (/year-person); the average life of the staff in office D increases by 121.94 days (/person-life) and the medical care expenditures reduce by ﹩79.12 (/year-person). After office C taking improvement measures, the average life becomes 222.92 days(/person-life) more than that before improvement and the medical care expenditure reduces by ﹩52.71 (/year-person). Among the improvements, the improvement effect of CO is most effective for the increase of average life and the reduction of medical care expenditures. However, O3 in the air outside results in the reduction of average life and increase in annual medical care expenditure.


摘 要................................................i
ABSTRACT............................................iii
目 錄................................................vi
表目錄...............................................ix
圖目錄...............................................xi
第一章 緒論...........................................1
1.1研究緣起...........................................1
1.2研究目的...........................................2
1.3研究流程...........................................3
1.4研究限制...........................................5
第二章 文獻回顧.......................................6
2.1室內空氣污染物主要成份及對人體的危害...............6
2.1.1一氧化碳(CO)....................................7
2.1.2二氧化碳(CO2)..................................10
2.1.3臭氧(O3)......................................11
2.1.4總揮發性有機化合物(TVOCs).....................13
2.1.5甲醛(Formaldehyde)............................14
2.1.6懸浮微粒(Particle matter).....................16
2.1.7生物氣膠(Bioaerosol)..........................22
2.2室內空氣品質標準..................................24
2.3室內空氣品質檢測方法..............................26
2.4室內通風設備......................................28
第三章 研究方法............................ .........30
3.1檢測計畫明........................................30
3.1.1檢測對象選定....................................30
3.1.2檢測空間基本資料................................31
3.1.3檢測流程圖......................................34
3.2檢測方法及內容....................................35
3.2.1環保署公告分析方法..............................37
3.2.2空氣品質檢測設備................................42
3.2.3現場量測........................................46
3.3致癌健康風險評估..................................48
3.3.1健康風險評估定義與步驟..........................48
3.3.2健康風險評估計算方式............................50
3.4空氣資源整合效益模型(ARCoB Model)...............53
3.4.1空氣資源整合健康效應模型(ARCoB Model)之定義...54
3.4.2空氣污染物濃度與壽命醫療之關係..................55
3.4.3相對風險RR(relative risk)與死亡歸因分率換算...56
3.4.4台灣國民簡易生命表..............................58
3.4.5統計生命價值與生命年價值........................60
3.4.6台灣衛生署健保局醫療支出統計....................63
第四章 結果與討論....................................65
4.1室內空氣品質檢測數據分析..........................65
4.1.1 一氧化碳(CO)濃度分析.........................65
4.1.2二氧化碳(CO2)濃度分析.........................66
4.1.3臭氧(O3)濃度分析..............................67
4.1.4總揮發性有機化合物(TVOC)濃度分析..............68
4.1.5甲醛(HCOH)濃度分析............................69
4.1.6懸浮微粒(PM2.5)濃度分析.......................70
4.1.7懸浮微粒(PM10)濃度分析........................71
4.1.8相對溼度(RH)分析..............................72
4.1.9溫度(Temp)分析................................73
4.1.10綜合討論.......................................74
4.2實施改善措施後室內空氣品質數據分析................74
4.2.1一氧化碳(CO)濃度分析..........................75
4.2.2 二氧化碳(CO2)濃度分析........................76
4.2.3臭氧(O3)濃度分析..............................77
4.2.4總揮發性有機化合物(TVOC)濃度分析..............78
4.2.5甲醛(HCOH)濃度分析............................79
4.2.6懸浮微粒(PM2.5)濃度分析.......................80
4.2.7懸浮微粒(PM10)濃度分析........................81
4.2.8相對溼度(RH)分析..............................82
4.2.9溫度(Temp)分析................................83
4.2.10綜合討論.......................................84
4.3致癌健康風險評估..................................85
4.3.1員工致癌風險評估................................85
4.3.2綜合討論........................................87
4.4非致癌健康效應評估................................88
4.4.1各辨公室終生平均壽命增減........................88
4.4.2各辦公室每年醫療支出增減........................90
4.4.5終生平均壽命增減-辦公室C與外氣比對..............92
4.4.4每年醫療支出增減-辦公室C與外氣比對..............93
4.4.5終生平均壽命增減-辦公室C實施改善措施............94
4.4.6每年醫療支出增減-辦公室C實施改善措施............95
4.4.7綜合討論........................................96
第五章 結論與建議....................................97
5.1結論..............................................97
5.2建議..............................................98
參考文獻.............................................99
附錄 A:各辦公室空氣污染物濃度值....................107
附錄 B:現地外氣與臨近測站比對資料..................115
附錄 C:儀器校正報告................................117

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