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研究生:王俊凱
研究生(外文):Chun-Kai Wang
論文名稱:具大量測範圍彩色深度影像視覺系統之研發
論文名稱(外文):Development of RGB-D imaging system with a high range of measuring depth
指導教授:陳亮嘉
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chia Chen
口試委員:葉勝利林世聰
口試委員(外文):Sheng-Lih YehShih-Tsong Lin
口試日期:2011-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:自動化科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:三維對映函數法傅立葉轉換表面形貌量測三維輪廓動態量測
外文關鍵詞:Mapping functions of three dimensionalFourier Transform Profilometry (FTP)Surface profilometryDynamic measurementRobot visionIn-situ vision3-D visionFringe Projection.
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
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本論文旨主要是開發新的一套機器視覺量測系統,目前設定在室內環境下進行大範圍且遠距離三維視覺量測,利用微型投影機將所設計之週期性條紋結合特徵點結構光投射至量測範圍空間中,並可安裝於移動型機器人上擷取到全域式的即時影像,未來可整合有效的物件分離與判斷技術,提高視覺系統可靠度與自我決策之能力,這將會對目前使用主動式量測視覺技術有相當大的提升和創新。
本研究亦利用影像之二維頻譜分 佈推導傅立葉演算法之量測法則,可將投影之單張影像建立待測物三維影像重建之結果,並結合投影特徵點結合對映函數法則來判斷待測物有效三維重建影像之絕對距離,將可解決傳統參考平面之相對座標之量測限制,可改善使用傅立葉週期性條紋量測之無參考背景情況進行物體形貌判斷,其投影至空間中多重特徵點進行多重深度物體之絕對深度判斷基準,且量測範圍可達六公尺遠,並將深度影像結合彩色攝影機所擷取之彩色影像資訊,達到大範圍彩色深度影像自動化物體形貌量測之效果。


FTP is one of the leading techniques which can provide accurate 3-D profile of an object surface; however, the weakness of FTP method is the dependence on reference plane to retrieve the phase difference and depth value. The depth obtained from triangulation principle is actually the relative depth between the points on the object surface and the defined reference plane. Therefore, the position of reference plane is very important to define and locate the 3-D object into the world coordinate. This prevents the FTP method from being integrated within any hand-hold device for acquiring 3-D images. This research overcomes this weakness of FTP method and develop a compact 3-D image acquisition system which can be freely moved during operation and maintain high accuracy of 3-D depth measurement.
An set of extra reference points is added as the absolute reference points for detecting the absolute distance. The image acquisition unit is an near-infrared CCD camera being connected with a portable notebook computer. Before doing any measurement, the system is calibrated through a system calibration process to obtain the mapping functions for the projecting reference points. These calibrated functions can be employed during further image acquisition process for calculating the absolute distance between these reference points and the detected 3-D scanner.


摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 研究之創新性 3
1.4 論文架構 4
第2章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 引言 5
2.2 三維形貌量測技術 8
2.2.1 時間飛行法 8
2.2.2 立體視覺法 13
2.2.3 結構光編碼法 17
2.2.3.1 線掃描 17
2.2.3.2 週期性結構光 20
2.2.3.3 干涉條紋結構光投影 23
2.2.4 傅立葉轉換輪廓術 28
2.2.4.1 提高量測範圍 29
2.2.4.2 即時量測 30
2.2.4.3 提高量測速度 31
2.2.4.4 傅立葉轉換輪廓術技術文獻分析探討 33
2.2.5 相移法 33
2.2.6 斑紋結構光編碼法 38
2.3 演算法小結 44
2.4 系統架構之文獻探討 45
2.4.1 絕對相位演算法 45
2.4.2 微型化系統設計 47
第3章 系統架構與設計原理 50
3.1 硬體系統架構原理 50
3.1.1 數位光源處理技術 50
3.1.2 微型投影機套件 53
3.1.3 高功率近紅外線發光二極體 54
3.1.4 光電耦合裝置 57
3.1.5 彩色光電耦合裝置 58
3.1.6 光電耦合裝置鏡頭 59
3.1.7 中通濾波鏡 60
3.1.8 影像轉換器 61
3.2 硬體系統架構設計 62
第4章 動態三維輪廓量測原理與技術 65
4.1 演算法之流程 65
4.2 傅立葉轉換三維形貌量測術之原理 67
4.2.1 單頻傅立葉轉換 67
4.3 中通濾波 69
4.3.1 濾波器設計 70
4.4 相位擷取技術 74
4.5 相位重建技術 74
4.6 絕對相位還原技術 76
4.7 三維輪廓重建原理 77
第5章 系統量測實例結果分析與討論 79
5.1 特徵點絕對距離量測與精度分析 79
5.2 投射週期性條紋與特徵點進行影像空間重建 85
5.2.1 結構光設計與背影影像分割結果 85
5.2.2 三維影像重建與世界座標還原結果 91
5.2.3 多重物件與深度位置之量測 94
5.3 大範圍三維量測系統結果之比較 95
5.4 討論及分析 97
第6章 結論與未來展望 99
6.1 結論 99
6.2 未來展望 100
參考文獻 102


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