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研究生:林璟汶
研究生(外文):Jing-Wen Lin
論文名稱:以熱微影技術製作微奈米結構之研究
論文名稱(外文):Manufacturing of Submicron Structures by Thermal Lithography
指導教授:陳貞光
口試委員:邱國基邱德威
口試日期:2011-07-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:熱微影相變化合金微奈米結構
外文關鍵詞:thermal lithographyphase change materialsubmicron structure
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本研究藉由鍺-銻-錫合金系統無機光阻靶材,在氬氣及氧氣氣氛下實行濺鍍,得到一成分均勻之鍺-銻-錫氧化物無機光阻相變化薄膜,經XRD分析為一非晶薄膜。於雷射波長曝光後,發現鍍膜確實受到影響而造成一局部凸起區域,而以DSC分析量測亦發現一結晶峰,驗證鍍膜確實於340至390°C發生結晶相變化。
利用鍺含量的提升,可以有效提高薄膜的結晶性,降低結晶溫度及結晶活化能,而藉由氧氣流量的減少可使薄膜的吸收係數k值提高,增加對405 nm波長雷射的吸收,造成較均勻的相變化,可以得到邊界清晰的微奈米結構。因此利用不同吸收係數之鍍膜樣品配合適當的鍺含量,本研究進行一連串的連續雷射曝光試驗,其中GSS23-A(k = 0.85)鍍膜樣品以2.0 mW進行曝光,並以0.05 M KOH顯影100秒,可以獲得一溝深約107 nm、溝寬約175 nm、粗糙度僅1.38 nm之線奈米結構。而以脈衝雷射對該無機光阻薄膜進行曝光顯影時,可以形成一邊界清楚之微奈米點圖案,其橢圓程度隨寫入時間由2 T(31 ns)縮短至0.5 T(7.75 ns)後,形狀趨向於正圓,當以曝光功率5.1 mW及0.05 M KOH顯影100秒後,可獲得一140 nm之微奈米點圖案,達到藍光光碟記錄點的尺寸規格。

The current study develops a series of Ge-Sb-Sn inorganic resist materials. These targets are sputtered under Ar and O2 mixture atmospheres to form Ge-Sb-Sn-O thin films. The as-deposited films were amorphous according to XRD analysis. After laser exposure, the films are heated by the laser and demonstrate local bumps due to crystallization. The crystallization is also confirmed by DSC analyses to crystallize at temperature ranges of 340-390°C.
, The crystallinity of thin films was improved with the increase of Ge content. Ge appears to reduce the crystallization temperature and activation energy. On the other hand, the absorption coefficients, k, of these films at 405 nm wavelength increase with decreasing oxygen flow rate. The higher absorption could give rise to more uniform transformation and obtain submicron structures with sharp edges. Therefore, the size of submicron features can be controlled by manipulating Ge concentrations and absorption coefficients. Laser of 2.0 mW writing power was employed to write continuous patterns on the films. The transformed areas are then etched using 0.05 M KOH for 100 s as a developer. A continuous groove width of 175 nm and depth of 107 nm pattern is obtained, and its roughness is as low as 1.38 nm. Pulse laser strategy is also employed to manufacture submicron dot patterns. With the decrease of writing time from 2T (31 ns) to 0.5T (7.75 ns), the shape of dot patterns changed from ellipse toward round shape. Thin films with lower k values are chosen to generate minimal dot pattern size using 5.1 mW writing power and 0.05 M KOH developing. As small as 140 nm dot patterns are obtained which meet the specifications for recording pits in blue-ray discs.

目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的與動機 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 微奈米製程之應用 4
2.1.1 抗反射結構 5
2.1.2 光子晶體 6
2.1.3 光柵結構 9
2.2 微奈米製造方法 11
2.3 雷射刻版 12
2.4 熱微影技術 15
2.4.1 微影技術 15
2.4.2 熱微影技術原理 16
2.4.3 國際研究發展 17
2.4.4 基板 23
2.4.5 介電層材料 25
2.4.6 相變化材料 26
2.5 結晶活化能 28
2.5.1 Avrami法 29
2.5.2 Kissinger法 30
2.6 真空濺鍍 31
2.6.1 電漿原理 31
2.6.2 直流濺鍍 31
2.6.3 射頻濺鍍 32
2.6.4 磁控濺鍍 33
第三章 實驗方法 35
3.1 實驗材料 35
3.1.1 無機光阻靶材成分設計 35
3.1.2 靶材緻密度 36
3.1.3 靶材接合度 36
3.2 實驗流程 38
3.2.1 基板清潔 38
3.2.2 絕熱保護層 38
3.2.3 相變化材料鍍膜 39
3.2.4 曝光 39
3.2.5 顯影 39
3.3 實驗設備 40
3.3.1 光學顯微鏡 40
3.3.2 真空濺鍍設備 41
3.3.3 光學量測儀器 42
3.3.4 曝光寫入設備 43
3.3.5 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡 44
3.3.6 原子力顯微鏡 45
3.3.7 X光繞射分析儀 46
3.3.8 熱示差掃描卡量計 47
第四章 結果與討論 49
4.1 鍍膜結構及性質分析 49
4.1.1 鍍膜厚度及膜厚分佈 49
4.1.2 氧氣流量與光學性質 49
4.1.3 鍍膜表面觀察 51
4.1.4 XRD分析 52
4.1.5 DSC分析 53
4.2 曝光及顯影製程之影響 59
4.2.1 雷射曝光之影響 59
4.2.2 顯影時間對顯微結構之影響 60
4.2.3 顯影對粗糙度之影響 61
4.3 熱微影製程參數最佳化 63
4.3.1 分次濺鍍對微奈米結構之影響 63
4.3.2 靶材成分對微奈米結構之影響 63
4.3.3 光學吸收係數對微奈米結構之影響 68
4.3.4 曝光功率對微奈米結構之影響 69
4.4 微奈米點結構之製作 73
4.4.1 脈衝雷射寫入製程試驗 73
4.4.2 調整Write 1 length改善橢圓狀結構 74
4.4.3 脈衝雷射功率最佳化 76
第五章 結論 81
參考文獻 83



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