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研究生:許育誠
研究生(外文):Yu-CHeng Hsu
論文名稱:手持式裝置上互動應用的省電設計
論文名稱(外文):Low Power Design for Interactive Applications in Handheld Devices
指導教授:梁文耀梁文耀引用關係
口試委員:賴槿峰陳彥霖
口試日期:2012-07-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:動態電壓頻率調整幀率中央處理器使用率
外文關鍵詞:DVFSFPSCPU utilizationEnergy saving
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:158
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:3
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
手持裝置如智慧型手機與平板在日常生活中的使用越來越廣泛,故過去出現於電腦上的互動軟體如繪圖工具、文書辦公軟體以及需要複雜運算的3D遊戲紛紛出現在手持式裝置中。因手持式裝置的電源供應來自電池,不像桌上型電腦使用外部電源,因此節省能源是一個相當重要的課題。
在手持式裝置上,動態電壓與頻率調整(DVFS)是一種不錯的減少能耗方法。多數 DVFS 的是預測處理器的工作量(workload)然後調整處理器頻率,然而此類DVFS 沒有考慮到當前畫面的程式流暢度。對於多媒體與互動程式而言,流暢度會影響使用者的操作感覺。幀率(Frames Per Second, FPS)是普遍用來評估流暢度的基準,為了良好使用者體驗應把幀率納入考慮。故應用於手持裝置的 DVFS 設計,在調整處理器頻率使得程式流暢度改變下,需要保證程式畫面運行平滑。
本論文就是提出基於幀率與處理器使用率的 DVFS 設計,令使用者對互動程式的流暢度滿意並找機會讓裝置的能耗降低。

In the past few years, due to the rapid advance in technology, a lot of interactive applications are rapidly expanding from desktop computers to handheld devices, such as smartphone and tablet. 3D games, drawing applications, and office tools are widespread in the handheld devices. As compared with the desktop computer or video game console, mobile device has the power issue due to the power supply capacity been limited. herefore, reducing the power consumption of mobile device is a very important issue.
On handheld devices, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling(DVFS) is a good mechanism which can be used for saving power consumption. Some DVFS algorithms predict and scale the voltage and frequency according to the CPU workload. However, the DVFS methods typically do not consider the fluency of the applications. This is especially important for multimedia and interactive applications. The fluency of such applications is usually estimated by the Frames Per Second(FPS) characteristic. For better user experience, design of a good DVFS algorithm needs to ensure that programs run smoothly, since scaling the frequency may affect the fluency of an application.
In this thesis, we proposed a DVFS design, which is based on the frame rate and CPU usage. This design ensures fluency of interactive application. In addition, we look for opportunities to scale the CPU frequency to regulate energy consumption.

摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究範圍 2
1.4 論文編排 2
第二章 相關文獻與背景探討 3
2.1 動態電壓頻率調整 3
2.1.1 應用於三維遊戲的DVFS技術 4
2.2 互動軟體 5
2.3 幀率 6
2.4 CPU使用率 6
第三章 研究議題與方法 8
3.1 研究方法 8
3.2 互動軟體分類 8
3.3 系統流程 14
3.4 各類型處理流程 16
3.4.1 類型判斷處理流程 17
3.4.2 工具處理流程 18
3.4.3 影片處理流程 20
3.4.4 低幀率遊戲處理流程 22
3.4.5 高幀率遊戲處理流程 24
3.5 演算法 26
第四章 實作 31
4.1 參數取得 31
4.2 演算法實現 32
4.3 設定變數 33
第五章 實驗結果評估及分析 35
5.1 實驗環境 35
5.1.1 自動運行腳本 36
5.2 比較對象 37
5.2.1 使用的頻率調整演算法 37
5.2.2 採用的互動軟體 38
5.3 實驗結果與分析 39
5.3.1 工具類的結果與分析 39
5.3.2 影片類的結果與分析 40
5.3.3 遊戲類的結果與分析 41
5.4 iDVFS效能頻估 45
第六章 結論 48
6.1 結論 48
6.2 未來研究方向 48
參考文獻 50
附錄 52
A 量測數據 52
B iDVFS的使用評論 61

[1] Venkatesh Pallipadi and Alexey Starikovskiy, "The Ondemand Governor," Proceedings of the Linux Symposium, volume 2, July 2006, pp.215–230.
[2] Niraj K. Jha, "Low power system scheduling and synthesis," IEEE/ACM international conference on Computer-aided design, 2001, pp.259-263.
[3] Samsung S5PC110 Microprocessor User Manual 1.0 pp.2012.
[4] Yan Gu, Samarjit Chakraborty and Wei Tsang Ooi, "Games are Up for DVFS," Design Automation Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, 24-28 July, 2006, pp.598-603.
[5] Jason Gregory, Game Engine Architecture, Natick: A K Peters, 2009.
[6] Yan Gu and Samarjit Chakraborty, "Control Theory-based DVS for Interactive 3D Games," Design Automation Conference (DAC), Anaheim, CA, USA, 8-13 June, 2008, pp.740-745.
[7] Yan Gu and Samarjit Chakraborty, "A Hybrid DVS Scheme for Interactive 3D for Interactive 3D Games", Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Application Symposium, 2008, pp.3-12.
[8] B. Dietrich, S. Nunna, Dip Goswami, S. Chakraborty and M. Gries, "LMS-based low-complexity game workload prediction for DVFS," IEEE International Conference on Computer Design, Amsterdam, 3-6 Oct, 2010, pp.417-424.
[9] B. Mochocki, K. Lahiri, S. Cadambi and X. S. Hu, "Signature-based workload estimation for mobile 3D graphics," Design Automation Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, 24-28 July, 2006, pp.592-597.
[10] X. Zhao, Y. Guo and X. Chen, "Transaction-based adaptive dynamic voltage scaling for interactive applications,", ACM/IEEE International symposium on Low power electronics and design, 2009, pp.255-260.
[11] M. Bi, I. Crk, and C. Gniady, "IADVS: On-demand performance for interactive applications," IEEE 16th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture, Bangalore, 9-14 Jan. 2010, pp.1-10.
[12] A. Mallik, B. Lin, G. Memik, P. Dinda, and R. Dick, "User-Driven Frequency Scaling,", Computer Architecture Letters, Volume 5, Number2, July-December, 2006, pp.16.
[13] B. Lin, A. Mallik, P. Dinda, G. Memik and R. Dick, "User and Process driven Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling," IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software, 26-28 April 2009, pp.11-22.
[14] 白季川與范濬綸譯,從做中學:遊戲程式設計,台北市:上奇資訊,2005,第2-7頁。
[15] 影片格式: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Video_formats
[16] K. Choi, K. Dantu, W. Cheng, and M. Pedram, "Frame-based dynamic voltage and frequency scaling for a MPEG decoder," IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer Aided Design, New York, USA, 2002, pp.732-737
[17] NI DAQ:http://www.ni.com/dataacquisition/zht/
[18] NI LabVIEW :http://www.ni.com/labview/zht/
[19] 蜘蛛人:驚奇再起4分鐘電影精彩片段: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfmjOaNZUnQ&hd=1

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