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研究生:毛普臻
研究生(外文):Pu-Chen Mao
論文名稱:被動式光纖網路之交錯式輪詢排程與其延遲之探討
論文名稱(外文):Interleaved Polling and Its Delay Performance in Passive Optical Networks
指導教授:吳和庭吳和庭引用關係
口試委員:葉丁鴻柯開維
口試日期:2012-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:交錯式排程長距離被動式光纖網路線上排程封包延遲
外文關鍵詞:long-reach EPONonline schedulingheterogeneous propagation delay
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隨著網際網路、多媒體技術的普及與進步,網路頻寬的需求也同時快速成長。為了應付使用者在頻寬上的需求,網路提供業者必須更新網路設備以及網路基礎設施。近年來,多數的骨幹網路已替換成頻寬較高的光纖傳輸媒介,然而,在存取網路部分的更換速度卻相對緩慢。現今存取網路大多數使用基於銅線的傳輸通道,這也是骨幹網路與存取網路之間頻寬瓶頸之主要來源。為了應付頻寬的成長,將銅線傳輸媒介更換為光纖電纜是必然的。被動式光纖網路技術如 EPON、GPON 提供了有效的解決方案。
本研究探討光纖網路終端機與光纖網路局端之不同距離對被動式光纖網路延遲的影響。本論文首先觀察因不等距離而造成的空閒時隙,並且使用一個優先分配最早空閒時隙的排程機制,和過去傳統的依序排程機制做延遲上的比較。我們再使用此機制延伸一個知名的線上交錯式排程演算法,IPACT,並觀察兩種機制的延遲比較。此論文也使用 MPCP 通訊協定中 GATE 訊息的四個 GRANT 欄位,將一個光纖網路終端機的傳輸時間分配分為最多四段更小的分配量填入空閒時隙,進一步觀察此機制對延遲效能的提升。我們再來使用了一個循環佇列切換的技巧,使 ONU 能夠紀錄封包延遲資訊,並且將這資訊傳送給 OLT。OLT 使用了收集到各 ONU 的封包延遲資訊後,透過一個頻寬分配機制可以進而降低網路封包的延遲時間。


With advances in the World Wide Web and multimedia technologies requiring ever more network bandwidth, service providers have been upgrading network equipments and infrastructure to support the growing demand. While most of the media for backbone networks have been replaced by optical fiber over the years, progress in the access portion of the network is relatively slow in this regard. Due to the bottlenecks existing in copper-based access channels, upgrading the last (first) mile to optical fiber is inevitable. Passive optical network (PON) solutions such as EPON and GPON provide a cost effective approach to this problem.
This study investigates the effects of the variable distance of optical network units (ONUs) from the OLT on scheduling and delay performance in PONs. We observe the formation of idle time periods in the transmission channel caused by the heterogeneous distances from the optical line terminal (OLT), and attempt to allocate these time periods in an earliest first fashion by insertion of transmission windows into the gaps, as opposed to sequentially scheduling each ONU in traditional schemes. Comparison between a well known EPON scheduling algorithm, IPACT, and its extension using our allocation scheme is done from a delay performance perspective. We further extend this allocation scheme by utilizing the four grants available in the MPCP message and divide a single grant into four smaller grant segments, and observe the improvement in delay performance. In addition, a circular queue switching technique is employed at the ONUs to enable communication of packet delay information to the OLT. The OLT uses the delay information from ONUs in a bandwidth distribution scheme that reduces mean packet delays even further when paired with the insertion scheduling method.


摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 The Optical First Mile 1
1.2 Motivation and Research Objective 4
1.3 Structure of the Thesis 5
Chapter 2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND 6
2.1 Ethernet Passive Optical Networks 6
2.2 Multi-Point Control Protocol 9
2.3 Types of Scheduling 12
2.4 Formation of Idle Time Periods 12
2.5 Delay Components in PON 15
2.6 Generating Self-similar Traffic 16
2.7 Related Work 18
Chapter 3 SCHEDULING WITH INSERTION 22
3.1 Idle Transmission Window Insertions 22
3.2 Segmented Transmission Window Insertions 25
3.3 Simulation Model 27
3.4 Simulation Results 29
3.5 Summary 39
Chapter 4 DELAY-BASED BANDWIDTH DISTRIBUTION 41
4.1 Periodic Queue Switching 41
4.2 Weighted Delay Bandwidth Distribution 44
4.3 Simulation Results 46
4.4 Distributable Bandwidth Ratio 54
4.5 Summary 58
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 59
5.1 Conclusion 59
5.2 Future Work 60
References 61


[1] Paul Green Jr., “Fiber to the Home: The New Empowerment”, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN: 978-0-471-74247-0, 2006.
[2] Biswanath Mukherjee, “Optical Networks: The Road Ahead,” European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), Berlin, Germany, September 16-21, 2007, pp. 1-4.
[3] Kramer, G. Pesavento, G., “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 40, Issue 2, 2002, pp. 66-73.
[4] “On generating self-similar traffic using pseudo-Pareto distribution,” http://glenkramer.com/ucdavis/papers/self_sim.pdf.
[5] G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A Dynamic Protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 40, Issue 2, 2002, pp. 74-80.
[6] Huan Song, Byoung-Whi Kim, and Biswanath Mukherjee, “Multi-Thread Polling: A Dynamic Bandwidth Distribution Scheme in Long-Reach PON,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 27, No. 2, Feb. 2009, pp. 134 – 142.
[7] Ahmed Helmy, Habib Fathallah, and Hussein Mouftah, “Interleaved Polling Versus Multi-Thread Polling for Bandwidth Allocation in Long-Reach PONs,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, Volume: 4, Issue: 3, 2012, pp. 210-218.
[8] Yongqing Zhu and Maode Ma, “IPACT With Grant Estimation (IPACT-GE) Scheme for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 26, No. 14, 2008, pp. 2055-2063.
[9] Burak Kantarci and Hussein T. Mouftah, “Bandwidth Distribution Solutions for Performance Enhancement in Long-Reach Passive Optical Networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. PP, Issue 99, 2011, pp. 1-20.
[10] B. Skubic, Jiajia Chen, J. Ahmed, Biao Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for Long-Reach PON: Overcoming Performance Degradation,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 48, Issue 11, November 2010, pp. 100-108.
[11] Huan Song, Byoung-Whi Kim, and Biswanath Mukherjee, “Long-Reach Optical Access Networks: A Survey of Research Challenges, Demonstrations, and Bandwidth Assignment Mechanisms,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 12, Issue 1, First Quarter 2010, pp. 112-123.
[12] Michael P. McGarry, Martin Reisslein, Frank Aurzada, and Michael Scheutzow, “Shortest Propagation Delay (SPD) First Scheduling for EPONs with Heterogeneous Propagation Delays,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 28, Issue 6, August 2010, pp. 849-862.
[13] K. Kanonakis and I. Tomkos, “Online Upstream Scheduling and Wavelength Assignment Algorithms for EPON,” Proc. IEEE European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), September 2009, pp. 1.6.4.1-1.6.4.2.


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