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研究生:朱君帆
研究生(外文):Chun-Fan Chu
論文名稱:利用炸震夯實法來探討對土壤的影響
論文名稱(外文):Analysis on the Influence of Blasting Compaction on Soils
指導教授:丁原智
口試委員:王泰典李進興
口試日期:2012-01-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:資源工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:炸震夯實壓密孔隙率土壤液化
外文關鍵詞:SoilLiquefactionCompactionPorosityBlasting Compaction
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目前國內公共建設大多以公路為主,在構築土壩、道路、路堤與許多結構物時必須將鬆散的土壤加以夯實,以便增加其單位重。因夯實具有增加土壤強度的特性,故藉由夯實可增加基礎的從載力。夯實亦可減少結構物預期外的沉陷量。夯實為填土工程中重要指標。同樣的土壤,夯實的良否,影響了填土的穩定性與透水性,土壤經過夯實之後,通常可具有高強度,低壓縮性及良好的穩定性。為使夯實的效果合乎工程品質的控制因素很廣;選擇適切的填土材料為先決條件,在工地現場須視土壤條件來選擇夯實方式,決定爆破每層厚度,調整施工含水量,因應相對夯實度的規範調整爆破夯實的次數。由於一般大型土方工程均希望挖填平衡,因此現地開挖出來的土壤,大部分會留用成回填土。或者在現場附近取得回填土。故使用的回填土未必是很理想的土質。綜合上述理由,對於各類土壤的夯實是否能達到規範的要求,必須先了解試驗方法。
這些處理方法施工時需要大型的施工設備,施工複雜,工期長,處理費用高。沿海許多工程建設中這樣的軟基處理需要有新的施工技術投入。
本實驗使用了炸震夯實法的方式來探討對土壤的影響,使用了不同的參數來做實驗分析,並且將不同的藥量對土壤的沉陷做一個比較。並實用surfer繪製出區域地形圖,將炸前與炸後做一個地形變化的比較。並將土壤取樣後做室內實驗來了解土壤炸前與炸後3小時和27小時的變化。


At present, the main public works are mostly focusing on highway, in building dams roads and embankments, the loose soil are required to be compacted in order to increase its unit weight. Due to compaction has the property of increasing strength of the soil which can increase the capacity of base. Compaction could also reduce the unexpected settlement of a building. Compaction is an important indicator for embankment. The same soil, the quality of compaction, decides the stability of embankment and permeability, the soil after embankment, usually has high strength, low compressibility and great stability. The compaction in order to meet the great quality of a work, the range of control factors are very wide; selecting an appropriate embankment material is a prerequisite, in the work site, determine the compaction method is dependent on the soil quality, deciding the thick of every layer, adjust water content of construction, in response to the relative compaction degree of compaction of specification to adjust the frequency of blasting. Because most large earthworks engineers works are mostly to balance by embankment, therefore the soil dig out from the work site, most are kept for backfill soil, or acquire the backfill soil near the work site, therefore the back fill soil is not an ideal soil. Due to the reasons above, the various types of soil for compaction which reach the standard of the speculation, must to understand the examination method first.
The approach requires the construction of large-scale construction equipment, construction complex, long duration, high processing costs. Many construction projects in coastal soft ground are needed for new construction technology investment. Backfill material from the above do not necessarily know the best use of soil, in response to filling purposes (road, mountain slopes, Sea Guangdong relict ion, etc.), and filling of the components (road bed, roadbed, etc.) is different filling the requirements for quality will vary. The first comparison, re-examine the error, then analysis of the two soil density test method and the relationship between soil physical properties, to facilitate the right to judge the relative degree of compaction. Furthermore part of the fine-grained soil compaction after blasting, and not because of the relative frequency will increase the more the degree of compaction, decline may be the case.


摘 要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌 謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 緒 論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 1
1.3 研究方法 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 炸震夯實法發展簡介 6
2.2 炸震夯實之基本原理 6
2.2.1 改良土壤機制 7
2.2.2 土壤受震後之能量反應 7
2.2.3 改良效果之評估 8
2.2.4 強度之時間性 9
2.2.5土壤物理性質 10
2.2.6 片狀土與球狀土混合土壤性質 11
2.3 影響夯實成效的因素 14
2.3.1 土壤飽和度狀態 15
2.3.2 排水措施的佈置 16
2.3.3 覆土的壓力 16
2.3.4 強度提昇之影響區域 16
2.4 施作步驟 17
2.5 設計的概念 17
2.5.1炸藥量 18
2.5.2炸藥型式 18
2.5.3埋置深度 18
2.5.4引爆順序與時間的安排 18
2.5.5炸震夯實作用機制探討 19
第三章 實驗方法與儀器 21
3.1室內實驗實驗方法 21
3.1.1土壤顆粒比重試驗 21
3.1.2粒徑分析試驗 26
3.1.3相對密度試驗 32
3.2實驗目的: 37
3.2.1炸震實驗一 44
3.2.2炸震實驗二 45
3.2.3炸震實驗三 46
第四章 結果與討論 47
4.1炸藥藥量討論 47
4.1.1藥量變化和深度改變對於土壤沉陷量的影響 48
4.1.2藥量變化對於沉陷量的影響 50
4.1.3藥量變化對於相對密度的影響 51
4.2土壤性質的變化討論 52
4.2.1相對密度和孔隙率和沉陷量的關係 52
4.2.2相對密度對含水量和沉陷量的關係 58
4.3利用SURFER來看炸前與炸後的地形變化 64
4.4探討三組實驗是否互相影響 66
4.4.1震波對土壤沉陷的影響 66
4.5空洞產狀之探討 68
4.6 覆土壓力的影響 70
4.7 土壤種類的影響 70
4.7.1 空洞內土體之改良成效 70
4.8高程變化討論 71
4.8.1沉陷量討論取樣點至爆源距離 74
第五章 結論與建議 77
5.1 試驗結論 77
5.1.1 炸藥埋置深度影響 77
5.1.2 覆土壓力影響 77
5.1.3 藥量的影響 77
5.2 未來研究建議 77
5.2.1 炸藥量對土層造成之影響 77
5.2.2 開炸延遲時間作用原理 78
5.2.3 改良效果與範圍之評估 78
5.2.4適宜之炸藥埋設深度 78
5.2.5 不透水層厚度對夯實成效的影響 79
參考文獻 80
附錄一粒徑分布曲線表 84
附錄二粒徑分布曲線圖 94


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