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研究生:吳坤龍
研究生(外文):Kuen-Long Wu
論文名稱:使用Y因子方法量測雜訊指數準確度之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study for Measurement Accuracy of Noise Figure by Using Y Factor Method
指導教授:賴柏洲賴柏洲引用關係
口試委員:李士修陳俊宏鄔文杰
口試日期:2012-06-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電腦與通訊研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:雜訊指數雜訊源額外雜訊比值Y因子前置放大器
外文關鍵詞:Nose FigureNoise SourceExcess Noise RatioY FactorPreamplifier
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在射頻與微波通訊系統上,接收機必須處理非常微弱的訊號,但系統內部所產生的雜訊卻會導致這些微弱訊號無法被準確量測出來。在量測裝置或系統時,雜訊會影響訊號,雜訊的來源除了系統外部也有可能由接收機本身所產生,雜訊指數是一個重要的參數,它可以用來測出整個系統或電路的雜訊特性。
影響量測時的準確度除了待測物本身外,還包括了量測時所使用的儀器以及雜訊源,而額外雜訊比值用來表示雜訊源的輸出狀態,對於使用者來說,如何去減少量測時所產生的錯誤與獲得更準確的量測結果,是一個值得去面對的問題。
在本論文中會提出使用頻譜分析儀、Y因子技術與雜訊源來量測雜訊指數,而且會說明Y因子與雜訊指數之間的關係,以及選擇適當的雜訊源與前置放大器用來減少量測時發生的錯誤及提高量測的準確度。


In RF and microwave communications, the receiver must deal with weak signals, but the noise generated from the system will lead to these weak signals unable to be accurately measured. Noise Figure (NF) is the key to specify the noise performance of a circuit or device.
For the most accurate measurement, it is important to understand the error contributors and identify which of these can be changed to improve the accuracy of measurement results. In addition, measurement accuracy includes contributions due to the measurement instrument, the device under test (DUT) and noise source which is specified by their excess noise ratio (ENR). User will face a big challenge in reducing measurement error and achieving accurate measurement results.
This thesis use spectrum analyzer and Y Factor technique to measure noise figure based on noise source hot and cold standards. The relation between noise figure and Y Factor is also presented. Furthermore, selection of an appropriate noise source and preamplifier will reduce the measurement error and improve the accuracy of measurement results.


English Abstract i
Chinese Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iii
Contentsiv
List of Tablesv i
List of Figures vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation and Contribution 1
1.2 The Organization of Thesis 2
CHAPTER 2 THE FUNDAMENTAL OF RADIO FREQUENCY 3
2.1 Receiver Architecture 3
2.1.1 Amplitude Modulation Detector Receiver 3
2.1.2 Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver 5
2.1.3 Direct Conversion Receiver 6
2.1.4 Superheterodyne Receiver 7
2.2 Nonlinear Characteristics 8
2.2.1 Harmonic 8
2.2.2 1dB Compression Point 9
2.2.3 Intermodulation Distortion 10
2.3 Sensitivity 13
2.4 Dynamic Range 14
2.5 Fundamentals of Spectrum Analysis 14
2.5.1 Attenuator 15
2.5.2 Mixer 15
2.5.3 IF Amplifier 16
2.5.4 IF Filter 16
2.5.5 Envelope Detector 17
2.5.6 Sweep Generator 17
2.5.7 Video Filter 17
CHAPTER 3 NOISE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS 19
3.1 Power Spectral Density 19
3.2 Type of Noise 21
3.2.1 Thermal Noise 21
3.2.2 Shot Noise 22
3.2.3 Flicker Noise 22
3.2.4 Plasma Noise 23
3.2.5 Phase Noise 23
3.3 Noise Floor 24
3.4 Noise Figure 26
3.4.1 Noise Temperature 26
3.4.2 Noise Figure Definition 26
3.4.3 Noise Figure of Cascaded Network 29
3.4.4 Noise Power Density 35
3.4.5 Noise Source 35
3.4.6 Excess Noise Ratio 36
3.4.7 Y Factor 37
CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND RESULT 42
4.1 Noise Figure Measurement Technique 42
4.2 Measurement Step 44
4.3 Measurement Result 46
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 52
REFERENCE 53
APPENDIX A: EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE SPECIFICATION 56
A.1 Noise Source 56
A.2 Low Noise Amplifier 57
A.3 Preamplifier 58
APPENDIX B: PUBLICATION LIST 59


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