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研究生:張良鉦
研究生(外文):Liang-Cheng Chang
論文名稱:無線嵌入式工具機主軸故障監測系統開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of a Wireless Embedded System for Monitoring the Malfunctions of Spindle
指導教授:李達生李達生引用關係
指導教授(外文):DaSheng Lee
口試委員:徐金城李其源苗志銘陳炳煇林啟瑞
口試日期:2012-06-14
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:機電科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:工具機主軸系統監測無線射頻技術
外文關鍵詞:monitoring systemwireless and powerless sensing nodesignal-to-noise ratiospindle
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本研究係開發無線嵌入式模組用於工具機主軸運轉監測系統開發,無線嵌入式模組可透過感測器收集金屬環繞封閉空間內物理量資料,並且穿透金屬外殼將資料傳遞出來。以工具機主軸運轉監測為例,從訊號傳輸理論分析到嵌入式系統模組的設計與應用,完整研究嵌入式模組用於工具機主軸運轉監測系統之可行性。掌握無線技術在金屬外殼進行資料的傳輸技術,並利用無線訊號傳輸元件與加速規的硬體設計,達成工具機主軸故障監測之目的。無線嵌入式工具機主軸運轉監測系統並設計有自耦發電系統,使主軸內部的元件不需要額外配置電力線,透過轉子轉動提供無線嵌入式模組各元件所需要的電力。本研究設計常見的主軸故障情形進行分析,分別為主軸組裝不匹配、系統不平衡與軸承損壞,實驗測試發現使用無線嵌入式感測器統於主軸內部監測方式比一般在主軸外殼外側方式有更高的訊噪比,訊噪比最高可以差異到8.6dB。因此,用於監測主軸故障情形時具有更高的辨別率,在轉速到達5000rpm 辨識率可以高達100%,在實際將系統應用於主軸生產後的產線測試系統發現,無線嵌入式故障監測系統較不受外界振動的影響造成誤判,使主軸在生產完成後的驗證能更確實分辨是否異常。此外,此系統具有可擴其他感測器的優點,因此在未來無論是應用在主軸生產或是在工具機加工過程都能夠即時的偵測出系統異常,使機具穩定進行生產,讓工廠機具管理更有系統化。

A Wireless and Powerless Sensing Node (WPSN) inside a spindle enables the direct transmission of monitoring signals through a metal case of a certain thickness instead of the traditional method of using connecting cables. Thus, the node can be conveniently installed inside motors to measure various operational parameters. After system observation and optimization, the system has been verified to be superior to traditional methods. The innovation of fault diagnosis in this study includes the unmatched assembly dimensions of the spindle system, the unbalanced system, and bearing damage. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the WPSN provides a desirable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in all three of the simulated faults, with the difference of SNR reaching a maximum of 8.6 dB. Following multiple repetitions of the three experiment types, 80% of the faults were diagnosed when the spindle revolved at 4,000 rpm, significantly higher than the 30% fault recognition rate of traditional methods. The experimental results of monitoring of the spindle production line indicated that monitoring using the WPSN encounters less interference from noise compared to that of traditional methods. Therefore, this study has successfully developed a prototype concept into a well-developed monitoring system, and the monitoring can be implemented in a spindle production line or real-time monitoring of machine tools.

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目 viii
第一章緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 文獻回顧 3
1.4 論文架構 8
第二章創新無線嵌入式故障監測系統 9
2.1 創新嵌入式故障診斷監測與傳統故障監測 10
2.1.1 傳統工具機主軸故障診斷 10
2.1.2 創新無線嵌入式故障監測系統 11
2.2 無線技術透過金屬外殼進行訊號傳輸理論分析 12
2.2.1 電磁波輻射 12
2.2.2 電磁波能量衰減 13
2.2.3 電磁波訊號傳遞分析 17
2.3 訊號處理 18
2.3.1 傅立葉理論公式 19
2.3.2 快速傅立葉轉換 20
2.3.3 信號的取樣 21
2.3.4 取樣頻率設計 22
2.3.5 信號洩漏效應改善 23
第三章創新無線嵌入式故障監測系統開發 26
3.1 無線系統硬體架構 26
3.1.1 加速規選用 26
3.1.2 無線訊號傳輸模組選用 29
3.1.3 無線系統硬體架構 30
3.1.4 無線訊號碰撞發生 32
3.1.5 改善訊號傳輸無線系統硬體架構 33
3.1.6 無線訊號避免碰撞與干擾的編碼處理 34
3.2 嵌入式發電模組設計 37
3.2.1 發電模組理論設計 37
3.3 嵌入式系統整合 41
3.4 軟體介面設計 43
第四章實驗設計與功能測試 44
4.1 無線嵌入式故障監測系統訊號傳輸測試 44
4.5 無線嵌入式故障監測系統訊號傳輸測試與結果 45
4.6 常見的工具機主軸故障實驗 48
4.7 實際應用於生產線上 55
第五章實驗結果與討論 56
5.1 三種故障診斷實際測試結果 57
5.1.1 Case1:主軸配件尺寸誤差太大測試結果 57
5.1.2 Case2:主軸產生不平衡測試 59
5.1.3 Case3:主軸軸承損壞 61
5.2 外加振動訊號源測試結果 65
第六章結論與未來展望 67
6.1 結論 67
6.3 未來發展 69
參考文獻 70
符號彙整 75
作者簡介 77

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