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研究生:李智軒
研究生(外文):Hsuan-chih Li
論文名稱:數據中心蒸發冷卻之數值模擬
論文名稱(外文):Numerical Simulation of Evaporative Cooling in Data Centers
指導教授:施陽正
指導教授(外文):Yang-Cheng Shih
口試委員:洪國書江旭政
口試日期:2012-06-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:能源與冷凍空調工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:其他工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:計算流體力學數據中心熱管理電腦機房貨櫃機房蒸發冷卻
外文關鍵詞:CFDData CenterThermal ManagementCRACContainer-based Data CenterEvaporative Cooling
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隨著科技日新月異的進步,網際網路及資訊軟硬體快速的發展,雲端運算、雲端儲存概念被廣泛應用在各個領域,使得政府機關與企業大量建造或升級原有的數據中心來處理大量的雲端技術服務等,而新一代的IT設備單一機櫃功率可高達10~30千瓦,再加上其他附屬應用產品等,使得機房整體電力與所產生熱能非常可觀。因此如何提升空調效率,或是選用適當冷卻方式將更為重要,如良好的熱管理以及在適當的氣候下使用節能系統,引入外氣來對數據中心進行冷卻。
本研究利用CFD模擬軟體對高架地板型機房及貨櫃型機房進行熱管理的改善與蒸發冷卻模擬分析,理論模式是針對空氣混合物(乾空氣與水蒸氣)與水滴微粒分別採用尤拉法與拉格蘭法進行數值模擬。模擬結果顯示在高架地板型機房機櫃內使用盲板與在冷通道使用檔板阻隔氣流,可防止熱氣回流的問題;而使用節能系統引入外氣並搭配蒸發冷卻方式,可將原本的四台空調減少為兩台運轉。貨櫃型機房之蒸發冷卻模擬分析,使用7 m、20 m及25 m等三種不同直徑的水滴微粒為研究樣品,為避免液滴進入機櫃內,其限制入風口至貨櫃型機房的固定距離內需將液滴需完全蒸發,模擬結果顯示在直徑25 m以上的水滴較不適用在一般標準尺寸的貨櫃型機房,蒸發冷卻後可使外氣溫度降低,作為冷卻設備用途。


With the rapid growth of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry, data centers are essential support for the cloud computing and cloud storage concepts which are widely applied in various fields. Installation of new generation, high power (10~30 kW) IT equipment and other ancillary instruments within a single computer rack, makes the demands to manage both high power consumption and heat generation rates in the data center. Hence, it is essential to improve the efficiency of air conditioning system, the most energy consuming operating system in the data center, or choosing the proper thermal management, or implementing the economizer systems by introducing the outdoor air into data center for air cooling purposes on the suitable weather days.
This study aims to investigate the prospective improvement of thermal management and the potential of applying evaporative cooling in the typical data center and container-based data center by using the CFD software. The theoretical model considers the mixing of air mixture (dry air and moist) with fine water droplets in the data center to reach the energy-saving purpose. The computational analysis was based on Eulerian and Lagrangian methods for continuous and discrete phases, individually. For a typical floor-raised data center, the results showed that the use of blind plates inside the rack and partitions in the cold aisles helps prevent the heat reflux and other undesirable issues. With the induction of fine water droplets into the outdoor air in the economizer systems, the droplet evaporation cooling helps reduce the dependence on the use of CRAC air conditioning units, cutting down the demands from four units to two units.
As for container-based data center, the fine water droplets with mean size of 7 m, 20 m and 25 m were applied in this study. The water droplets should be evaporated completely within the distance between the air supply side and the container-based data center. The results showed that the water droplet mean size larger than 25 m is not applicable for evaporative cooling purposes in the container-based data center with standard size. The vaporized droplets can reduce the dry bulb temperature within the data center, achieving the energy- saving purpose.



摘 要................................................i
ABSTRACT.............................................ii
誌 謝...............................................iv
目 錄................................................v
表目錄..............................................vii
圖目錄.............................................viii
第一章 緒論...........................................1
1.1研究動機......................................1
1.2文獻回顧......................................3
1.3研究目的......................................6
第二章 數據中心冷卻方式與環境規範.....................8
2.1數據中心冷卻方式..............................8
2.2自然冷卻方式節能設計.........................10
2.2.1 空氣側直接進氣式.......................11
2.2.2 空氣側非直接進氣式.....................11
2.2.3 封閉型冷卻水塔.........................12
2.2.4 蒸發冷卻...............................13
2.2.5 各種性能之PUE值比較....................15
2.3數據中心環境規範.............................15
2.4數據中心效能評估.............................17
 第三章 數值模式....................................18
3.1 統御方程式..................................18
3.1.2 離散相(Discrete Phase)..............20
3.1.3 連續相與離散相之耦合階段..............21
3.2數值方法.....................................22
3.2.1 對流–擴散方程式的差分形式.............22
3.2.2 壓力–速度耦合關係的處理...............23
第四章 貨櫃機房使用蒸發冷卻方式......................27
4.1幾何外型與邊界條件設定.......................27
4.2液滴之生命期-郎格穆爾(Langmuir)方程式........34
4.3結果與討論...................................34
第五章高架地板型數據中心熱管理分析...................47
5.1幾何外型及邊界條件設定.......................47
5.2使用盲板與隔板之流場分析.....................50
5.3數據中心使用蒸發冷卻方式.....................52
5.3結果與討論...................................55
第六章 結論..........................................66
參考文獻.............................................67
符號彙整.............................................70
希臘符號.............................................71
附錄 相對濕度與質量分率之關係........................72



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