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研究生:蔡哲玄
研究生(外文):Tsai,Che Hsuan
論文名稱:數值模擬潛盾隧道開挖引起地表沉陷之因素探討
論文名稱(外文):A Study Using Computational Simulation on the Factors of Surface Settlement Caused by Shield Tunneling
指導教授:林志明林志明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Zhiming
口試委員:蘇世豐黃文彥
口試委員(外文):Su ShifengHuang Wenyan
口試日期:2012-01-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東南科技大學
系所名稱:防災科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:潛盾隧道
外文關鍵詞:Shield Tunneling
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潛盾施工作為地下隧道施工的一種主要的施工方法己引進國內30餘年,由施工引起的地層移動和地表沉陷是潛盾隧道設計和施工中非常關心的問題。本文運用三維有限差分法對潛盾隧道施工引起的地層移動和地表沉陷進行了因素探討與分析,並獲得一些結果,本文的主要研究工作包括:
1. 分析了潛盾施工的主要關鍵和導致土層位移的主要原因以及已有潛盾施工有限元(FEM)模擬方法的優點和不足,對現有方法在模擬潛盾施工解壓因素方面存在的不足之處進行了改進,建立能夠更合理地模擬潛盾施工過程的三維有限差分模式。
2. 利用三維有限差分法對潛盾施工過程中影響地面沉陷的因素(土艙壓力、盾尾灌漿壓力和開挖蛇行所造成地層損失)進行研究,得出了影響潛盾隧道地表沉陷最大的因素為地層損失和灌漿壓力,增大土艙壓力對降低隧道地表沉陷的作用非常有限。
3. 利用本文的研究結果對大陸某潛盾隧道之地表沉陷進行了三維模擬,結果表明潛盾隧道施工引起的地層變形具有明顯的三維效應,沿隧道軸線方向不同位置的地層垂直和水平位移變化很大; 潛盾隧道開挖面前方、盾體位置、盾殼後方的土體的地表沉陷具有不同行為。
關鍵詞:潛盾隧道,有限差分法,數值模擬,地表沉陷。

Shield tunneling as a key method for underground tunnel construction has been introduced into Taiwan for over thirty years. The ground movement and surface settlement resulted from the construction are major concerns of shield tunnel design and construction. In this study, the factors of ground movement and surface settlement are reviewed and analyzed by three-dimensional Finite Difference Method and achieved desirable results. The key efforts of this study include:
1. The critical steps of shield tunneling and the factors resulting in soil displacement are analyzed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of existing Finite Element Method (FEM) for shield tunneling. Improvements on the shortages of present method of simulating the factors of releasing the soil pressure were made through establishing a more reasonable modeling of three-dimensional Finite Difference Method for shield tunneling.
2. This study utilized three-dimensional Finite Difference Method to analyze the factors that cause surface settlement during shield tunneling process (earth pressure of closing chamber, shield tail grouting pressure and pitching and yawing of the shield boring machine), and the conclusions are that strata loss and grouting pressure are the contributing factors of surface settlement during the course of shield tunneling, and increasing the earth pressure of closing chamber has only limited impact on reducing the surface settlement.
3. A three-dimensional simulation on a surface settlement of one shield tunnel construction in Mainland China was conducted by using the study results, and it demonstrated that the strata deformation induced by shield tunnel construction bear obvious three-dimensional effects. The vertical and horizontal soil displacements along the axis of the tunnel are significant, and there are different behaviors of settlements at the areas in front of the excavation face of shield tunnel, the locations of the shield, and behind the shield.
Keywords: Shield Tunneling, Finite Difference Method (FDM), Computational Simulation, and Surface Settlement.

目錄
摘要 II
Abstract III
誌 謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 緒論 13
1.1 研究動機 14
1.2 研究目的 17
第二章 文獻回顧 19
2.1 潛盾隧道施工的發展 19
2.1.1潛盾工法發展史 19
2.1.2台灣潛盾工法施工歷程 21
2.2 隧道開挖引起的地層移動預測方法 24
2.2.1經驗公式法 24
2.2.2解析法 27
2.2.3地表沉陷的人工智能預測 28
2.2.4數值模擬法 30
2.2.5模型實驗法 33
第三章 土壓平衡潛盾施工及引致之地表沉陷 37
3.1 潛盾機構造 37
3.1.1刀盤及刀盤驅動系統 39
3.1.2盾體 40
3.1.3渣土運輸系統 42
3.1.4環片運輸、安裝系統 44
3.1.5推進系統 45
3.1.6後配套系統 46
3.1.7其他附屬裝置 48
3.2 不同掘進模式的原理 51
3.2.1土壓平衡式潛盾機 51
3.2.2開放式潛盾機 53
3.2.3混合式掘進模式 54
3.3 潛盾隧道施工主要過程 55
3.4 潛盾隧道施工引起地表沉陷的原因 58
第四章 數值分析方法 62
4.1 三維有限差分程式FLAC3D 63
4.1.1 FLAC3D的數值方法 64
4.1.2 FLAC3D的基本理論架構 64
4.1.3 FLAC3D組合律模式 67
4.1.4 FLAC3D的運算過程 70
4.1.5 FLAC3D的基本術語 71
4.1.6 FLAC3D的基本分析步驟 76
4.2 分析模式 79
4.2.1分析破壞準則 79
4.2.2材料參數 81
4.3 潛盾隧道開挖模擬 83
4.3.1分析網格建立 83
4.3.2初始應力的模擬 85
4.3.3潛盾推進過程的模擬 86
第五章潛盾隧道開挖之地表沉陷分析 92
5.1影響地表沉陷的因素分析 93
5.1.1土艙壓力對地表沉陷的影響分析 93
5.1.2盾尾灌漿壓力對地表沉陷的影響分析 99
5.1.3地層損失率對地表沉陷的影響分析 105
5.2工程案例模擬分析 110
5.2.1工程地質及水文地質概況 110
5.2.1分析幾何模型的建立 112
5.2.2潛盾推進模擬參數 113
5.2.3潛盾推進過程的模擬試驗的結果分析 115
第六章結論與建議 121
6.1結論 121
6.2建議 122
參考文獻 124


參考文獻
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