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研究生:蘇逸珊
研究生(外文):Yi-Shan Su
論文名稱:德布西鋼琴《練習曲》研究:聲響色彩之手法與演奏
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Debussy''s Etudes for Piano: Characteristics and Performance of Sonority
指導教授:魏樂富魏樂富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rolf-Peter Wille
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北藝術大學
系所名稱:音樂學系博士班
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:206
中文關鍵詞:德布西練習曲法國鋼琴音樂聲響色彩鋼琴技巧演奏詮釋觸鍵音色
外文關鍵詞:DebussyEtudesFrench piano musicpiano sonoritypiano techniqueinterpretation
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克勞德.德布西(Claude Debussy, 1862-1918)為鋼琴譜寫的《練習曲》(Études),不僅為其生平最後一部大型鋼琴獨奏曲集,更是唯一以「練習曲」為題的創作,這與大多數作曲家將練習曲作為早期之嘗試習作十分迥異,也顯示晚期德布西對創作純粹音樂的興趣。此部作品顛覆許多鋼琴練習曲既有的創作概念與聽覺美學,一反以訓練快速手指技巧為主要目的之傳統,將豐富的聲響與音樂表達置為首要,並融合東西方各種非傳統音樂元素,遊走於調性和聲邊緣。如此的創作手法在鋼琴練習曲發展上產生了前所未聞的聲響色彩,也加深了演奏詮釋的困難度,可說是以嶄新的聽覺美學,訓練演奏者聆聽與彈奏各種「鋼琴音色」的練習曲集。

本論文針對德布西《練習曲》豐富多元的聲響色彩,分別以歷史、創作手法以及演奏詮釋等三大面向進行研究。首先從歷史的角度論述鋼琴練習曲發展概況,德布西鋼琴音樂風格以及《練習曲》的創作背景。其次,從德布西晚期風格的影響來源再接以各首練習曲創作手法的觀察分析,包括樂曲音型在傳統或德布西其他作品之間的相似或差異性,以及十二首練習曲在曲式與和聲上的創新手法,如ABA曲式運用、持續強調音、複調手法以及二度音程的聲部引導。演奏詮釋部份則著重於德布西獨特的彈奏風格,如何應用在詮釋此十二首練習曲中,包括指法、速度節拍、音樂表達、德布西獨特觸鍵與「雙踏瓣」等演奏技巧。透過收集德布西發表的評論文章、個人演奏的相關文獻與錄音、以及受德布西指導過的演奏者回憶,連結相關作品對應在此練習曲之類似處,期彌補當時德布西因病纏身無法親自演奏此曲,且首演練習曲的鋼琴家們也未曾留下任何錄音,以致沒有貼近作曲家理念之演奏記錄遺憾。論文最後結論則總結過去對德布西練習曲在演奏教學上的誤解與迷思,經過此研究後期盼未來再詮釋此作品時,能更忠實地表達作曲家的音樂美學與聲響色彩,呈現出德布西心嚮往之的「法國音色」練習曲。

The piano Etudes of Claude Debussy (1862-1918) was not only the last Debussy''s large-scale composition for piano solo, but also the sole work under the title "Etude." It is unusual and quite different with most composers who take etudes as experiential genre and learning pieces in their early periods. Besides, it also shows Debussy''s interest in writing pure music in his late period. This set has many revolutionary points on both compositional concepts and auditory aesthetics in the development of piano etudes. Departing from the traditional finger velocity training, Debussy regarded the musical sonority and nuance as his first concern. The abundant materials from both western and oriental nontraditional music push the harmonic boundaries to their limits, and all together cause not only innovative sonority but also extraordinary difficulty of performance and interpretation. Therefore, Debussy''s Etudes could be considered as twelve "piano sonority" etudes for training performers'' listening and interpretation abilities by Debussy''s new auditory aesthetics.

For various aspects of Debussy''s Etudes, this study firstly presents the general development history of the piano etudes, Debussy''s piano music style, and also background of the composition. Besides, this research not only gives in-depth analysis and comparison of each etude, but also provides some essential issues of performance and interpretation, such as fingering, tempo, touch, "two pedals" skills and tone color. The discussion of compositional characteristic includes ABA structure, central or emphasized pitches, bitonal and counterpoint methods. The contents of interpretation focus on Debussy''s unique playing style and his point of view on his own piano music through his letters, articles, recording, and also accounts from other musicians and scholars. It is such a pity that Debussy was too sick to perform after composing Etudes, and even those pianists who first performed etudes never left any recording of any etude. Thus, this research would like to reach the goal to provide interpretative guide of these etudes closing to Debussy''s compositional ideas and performance style. The conclusion involves how people misunderstand Debussy''s piano sonority in Etudes, such as the use of pedaling and music expression. Through this study, pianists and teachers should be able to avoid such wrong myths and play a marvelous "faithful interpreter" of Debussy''s "French piano sonority" Etudes.

誌謝
摘要
目次

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 文獻回顧與探討 3
第三節 研究限制與論文架構 9
第二章 德布西與鋼琴練習曲 12
第一節 鋼琴練習曲的歷史發展 12
第二節 德布西的鋼琴作品 35
第三節 創作背景與版本比較 45
第三章 創作手法與特徵 55
第一節 從庫普蘭到蕭邦 55
第二節 練習曲第一冊 67
第三節 練習曲第二冊 89
第四節 傳承與創新 110
第四章 德布西風格的演奏詮釋 123
第一節 德布西的彈奏風格 124
第二節 指法速度與拍號轉換 139
第三節 潤飾音色的「雙踏瓣」 154
第四節 鐘響觸鍵與神祕氛圍 170
第五章 結論:演奏教學應用的反思 186
第一節 新的聆聽訓練與踏瓣技巧 186
第二節 忠於作曲家的演奏詮釋 189
第三節 法國新「鋼琴音色」練習曲 191
參考文獻 195
中譯人名索引 204

一、外文書目
Abravanel, Claude. “Symbolism and Performance.” In Debussy in Performance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.

Banowetz, Joseph. The Pianist''s Guide to Pedaling. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Benjamin, William E. “Pour les Sixtes: An Analysis.” Journal of Music Theory 22, no. 2 (Autumn 1978): 253-290.

Berthiaume, Gerald Bernard. “Practice and Performance Techniques for the Douze Etudes of Claude Debussy.” DMA Diss., University of Washington, 1989.

Boyd, Malcolm. “Domenico Scarlatti.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed. Edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. New York: Macmillan, 2001.

Briscoe, James R., ed. Debussy in Performance. New Haven, CT.: Yale University Press, 1999.

Burge, David. Twentieth-century Piano Music. New York: Schirmer Books, 1990.

Dale, Kathleen. Nineteenth-Century Piano Music: A Handbook for Pianists. New York: Da Capo Press, 1972.

Debussy, Claude. Claude Debussy: Through His Letters. Translated by Jacqueline M. Charette. New York: Vantage Press, 1990.

_______. Debussy Letters. Edited by François Lesure and Roger Nichols. Translated by Roger Nichols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.

_______. Debussy on Music: The Critical Writings of the Great French Composer. Collected and introduced by François Lesure. Translated and edited by Richard Langham Smith. New York: Knopf, 1977.

Dietschy, Marcel. A Portrait of Claude Debussy. Edited and translated from the French La Passion de Claude Debussy by William Ashbrook and Margaret G. Cobb. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Donnellon, Déirdre. “Debussy as Musician and Critic.” In The Cambridge Companion to Debussy. Edited by Simon Trezise. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Dumesnil, Maurice. How to Play and Teach Debussy. New York: Schroeder & Gunther Inc., 1932.

Durakoglu, Aysegul. “Contrapuntal Lines and Rhythmic Organization in Selected Debussy Piano Etudes: A Structural Analysis with Performance Implications.” Ph. D. Diss., New York University, 1997.

Elder, Dean. “Gieseking’s Pedaling in Debussy and Ravel.” In The Pianist’s Guide to Pedaling. ed. Joseph Banowetz, 230-87. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

_______. Pianists at Play: Interviews, Master Lessons, and Technical Regimes. 2nd ed. Amersham: Halstan & Co. Ltd., 1989.

Eigeldinger, Jean-Jacques. Chopin, Pianist and Teacher. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Ferguson, Howard, and Kenneth L. Hamilton. “Study.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed. Edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. New York: Macmillan, 2001.

Ganz, Peter Felix. “The Development of the Etude for Pianoforte.” Ph. D. Diss., Northwestern University, 1960.

Gatti, Guide M. “The Piano Works of Claude Debussy.” The Musical Quarterly 7, no. 3 (July 1921): 418-460.

Gordon, Stewart. A History of Keyboard Literature. New York: Schirmer Books, 1996.

Helffer, Claude. “Foreword: Chronology.” In Claude Debussy: Études. Paris: Durand-Costallat, 1991.

Hinson, Maurice. Guide to the Pianist’s Repertoire. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Howat, Roy. “Debussy''s Piano Music: Sources and Performance.” In Debussy Studies. Edited by Richard Langham Smith. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Johnson, Rosemary Wooddy. “Debussy''s ‘Douze Etudes’: Guidelines for Performance.” Ph. D. Diss., Alabama University, 1987.

Kahl, Willi. “Etüde.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Edited by Friedrich Blume. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1954.

Kirby, F. E. Music for Piano: A Short History. Pompton Plains, N. J.: Amadeus Press, 1995.

Laloy, Louis Louis Laloy on Debussy, Ravel and Stravinsky. Edited and translated by Deborah Priest. Ashgate: Aldershot, 1999.

Lawrence, Kramer. Why Classical Music Still Matters. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California, 2007.

Lesure, François. Claude Debussy: Biographie critique. Paris: Klincksieck, 1994.

_______. “Debussy, Claude.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed. Edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. New York: Macmillan, 2001.

Liebich, Louise “An Englishwoman’s Memories of Debussy.” The Musical Times 59, no. 904 (June 1918): 250.

Lockspeiser, Edward. Debussy: His Life and Mind. London: Cambridge Press, 1978.

Long, Marguerite. At the Piano with Debussy. Translated by Olive Senior-Ellis. London: J. M. Dent, 1972. First published as Au piano avec Debussy. Paris: René Julliard, 1960.

Menrath, Thomas. “Etüde.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. 2nd ed. Edited by Ludwig Finscher. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1995.

Moreux, Serge. Béla Bartók. Translated by G.S. Fraser and Erik de Mauny. London: The Harvill Press, 1953.

Myers, Rollo H. Debussy. London: Duckworth, 1948.

Newman, Ernest. “The Development of Debussy.” The Musical Times 59, no. 903 (May 1918): 199-203.

Ng, Kah-Ming. “Ornaments, §7: French Baroque.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed. Edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. New York: Macmillan, 2001.

Nichols, Roger. Debussy Remembered. London: Faber, 1998.

_______. The Life of Debussy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Noble, Jeremy. “Debussy and Stravinsky.” The Musical Times 108, no.1487 (January 1967): 22-25.

Orenstein, Arbie. A Ravel Reader: Correspondence, Articles, Interviews. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Orledge, Robert. “Debussy the Man.” In The Cambridge Companion to Debussy. Edited by Simon Trezise. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

_______. “Debussy’s Piano Music: Some Second thoughts and Sources of Inspiration.” The Musical Times 122, no. 1655 (January 1981): 21, 23-27.

Parks, Richard Samuel. “Organizational Procedures in Debussy''s ‘Douze Etudes’.” Ph. D. Diss., The Catholic University of America, 1973.

_______. The Music of Claude Debussy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.

Peterson, William John. “Debussy''s ‘Douze Etudes’ A Critical Analysis.” Ph. D. Diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1981.

Raad, Virginia. The Piano Sonority of Claude Debussy. Lewiston : E. Mellon Press, 1993.

Randel, Don Michael, ed. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. 4th ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003. S.v. “Etude”.

Ripin, Edwin. “Pianoforte, §Ⅰ, 2: History of the instrument: Origins to 1750.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed. Edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. New York: Macmillan, 2001.

Roberts, Paul. Images: The Piano Music of Claude Debussy. Portland, O.R.: Amadeus Press, 1996.

Rosenblum, Sandra P. “Pedaling the Piano: A Brief Survey from the Eighteenth Century to the Present.” Performance Practice Revie 6, no. 2, Art. 8 (Fall 1993): 158-178.

Said, Edward W. On Late Style: Music and Literature Against the Grain. New York: Pantheon Books, 2006.

Schmitz, Elie Robert. The Piano Works of Claude Debussy. New York: Dover Publications, 1966, c1950.

Siepmann, Jeremy. The Piano. London: Carlton, 2001.

Simeone, Nigel. “Debussy and Expression.” In The Cambridge Companion to Debussy. Edited by Simon Trezise. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Smith, Richard Langham. “Debussy on Performance: Sound and Unsound Ideals.” In Debussy in Performance. Edited by James R. Briscoe. New Haven, CT.: Yale University Press, 1999.
_______, ed. Debussy Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Straus, Joseph N. Twelve-Tone Music in America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Summer, W. L. The Pianoforte. London: MacDonald, 1966.

Timbrell, Charles. “Debussy in Performance.” In The Cambridge Companion to Debussy. Edited by Simon Trezise. New York.: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Trezise, Simon ed. The Cambridge Companion to Debussy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Vallas, Léon. Claude Debussy: His Life and Works. Translated from the French by Maire and Grace O’Brien. New York: Dover Publications, 1973.

Wheeldon, Marianne. Debussy’s Late Style. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2009.

Willliams, John-Paul. The Piano. New York: Billboard Books, 2002.

二、中文與譯文書目
平島正郎,平野 昭,村井範子等 著。《德布西:作曲家別-名曲解說珍藏版10》。林勝儀 譯。台北:美樂,2000。

吳雅婷。<反思德布西的鋼琴音樂>。《台中教育大學學報:人文藝術類》,第二十四卷,第一期 (2010年):頁87-113。

許文儒。《德布西音樂中的象徵主義精神》。碩士論文。台北:國立台北藝術大學音樂學院音樂學研究所,2009。

Frank Dawes著。《德布西/鋼琴曲》。林勝儀譯。台北市:全音出版社,1987。

三、樂譜
Adams, John. Phrygian Gates. New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1983.

Chopin, Frédéric. Etüden. München: G. Henle Verlag, 2006.
Clementi, Muzio. Gradus ad Parnassum. Band Ⅰ. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, n.d.

Couperin, Louis. Unmeasured Preludes. Due West Editions, 2009.

Czerny, Carl. Les Cinq Doigts. Op.777. Paris: Rouart, Lerolle et Cie.
_______. The School of Velocity. Op.299. New York: G. Schirmer Inc., 1893.

Debussy, Claude. Children''s Corner. Roy Howat ed. Paris: Durand, 2006.
_______. Douze Études. Ernst-Günter Heinemann ed. München: G. Henle Verlag, 1994.
_______. Estampes. Roy Howat ed. Paris: Durand, 2006.
_______. Études Ⅰ & Ⅱ. Hans Swarsenski ed. London: Edition Peters, 1975.
_______. Études: Livres Ⅰ et Ⅱ. Claude Helffer ed. Paris: Durand-Costallat, 1991.
_______. Études: Livres Ⅰ et Ⅱ. Claude Helffer ed. Paris: Durand, 2007.
_______. Études Pour le Piano: Fac-similé des esquisses autographes (1915). With an introduction by Roy Howat. Genève: Editions Minkoff, 1989.
_______. Images. 1st & 2nd Series. Roy Howat ed. Paris: Durand, 2006.
_______. Pour le Piano. Paris: E. Fromont, 1901.
_______. Pour le Piano. Roy Howat ed. Paris: Durand, 2004.
_______. Préludes: Livres Ⅰ. Paris: Durand & Cie, 1910.
_______. Préludes: Livres Ⅰ et Ⅱ. Edited by Roy Howat and Claude Helffer. Paris: Durand, 1985.

Fauré, Gariel. Impromtus. Paris: Heugel & Cie, 1909.

Liszt, Franz. Grandes Etudes de Paganini. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1971.

Schumann, Robert. Robert Schumanns Werk. Serie Ⅶ. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1887.

四、有聲資料
Debussy, Claude. Claude Debussy: The Composer as Pianist. Performed by Claude Debussy and recorded in 1913. Compact disc, Pierian Recording Society B00005IC03, 2000.

_______. Etudes. The Complete Works for Piano. Performed by Walter Gieseking and recorded in 1957. Compact disc, EMI 565855, 1995.

_______. Etudes. Debussy Piano Music Vol.1. Performed by Roy Howat and recorded in 1995. Compact disc, Tall Poppies 094, 1997.

_______. Etudes. Great Pianists of the 20th-Century. Performed by Mitsuko Uchida and recorded in 1989. Compact disc, Philips 456982-2, 1998.


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