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研究生:林以婕
研究生(外文):I-Chieh Lin
論文名稱:臺灣公立博物館社交媒體應用之差異及影響因素之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Adoption of Social Media in Taiwan Public Museums: A Survey of Current Status and Operations Management
指導教授:劉德祥劉德祥引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北藝術大學
系所名稱:博物館研究所碩士班
學門:傳播學門
學類:博物館學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:社交媒體Web 2.0博物館行銷
外文關鍵詞:social mediaWeb 2.0museum marketing
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社交媒體(social media)近年來的快速發展,改變了人們的溝通方式,使得人人皆可闡述想法、創造內容。營利企業組織更將其進行策略性整合,以創造口碑行銷的效益與建立更好的顧客關係。社交媒體的力量甚至影響到社會與政治層面,不但成為民眾群聚、發聲的利器,也是能貼近民心的溝通管道。這股熱潮漸漸延燒到博物館界,美國史密森機構於2009年策略發展會議中主張博物館應做出改變,以因應社交媒體對社會造成的影響。臺灣教育部社教司也從2010下半年開始對所屬館所積極推動社交媒體的運用。

  本研究嘗試對國內不同類型之公立博物館進行調查分析,以瞭解各館目前運用社交媒體現況。研究對象為設置於主要都會區的公立博物館,包括歷史文化類、自然史/科學類及藝術類。研究第一部分為檢視各博物館官網Web 2.0/非Web 2.0工具包含社交媒體的使用情形;第二部分則透過問卷調查與訪談,檢視博物館社交媒體使用動機與目標、管理人力與策略之差異,探究不同經營方式對博物館操作社交媒體的影響,包含執行成效、困境和未來發展方向。相對於López等的類似研究,本研究無法從博物館類型上看出Web 2.0工具採用比例的顯著差異,推測與政府政策推廣有關。在眾多社交媒體工具當中,Facebook最受博物館青睞。問卷和訪談研究結果顯示,國內公立博物館社交媒體多用於博物館行銷。從經營層面來看,博物館社交媒體多由公共服務或教育相關組室負責。由於各博物館人力和經費不同,分工方式會因館而異,亦難有專職管理者。多數受訪者相信,管理階層的支持以及研究人員的協助,亦是影響社交媒體運作的重要關鍵。值得關注的是,有些博物館是由館員主動提出設置社交媒體的建議,其餘則是由管理階層指派。此外,研究中大部分的博物館並沒有明確的評估成效方法。Web 2.0「使用者參與」的核心概念,亦少在博物館社交媒體中體現。建議博物館可透過社交媒體創造更多參與機會,例如展示前置評量。並定期檢討社交媒體策略以因應大眾需求。


The rapid development of social media in recent years has changed the way we communicate. With social media, everyone can freely express their ideas and distribute on the web. The business sector has already tapped into these powerful web tools to strengthen marketing strategies, build stronger brand and nurture robust customer relationships. In politics, people use social media to coordinate events in response to government decision and voice their opinions. Politicians also employed social media tools to maintain their support. This trend of development also has an effect on the museum field and museum management begins to explore the implications of these new tools. During a strategic planning meeting in 2009, curators of the information service of the Smithsonian Institution claimed that the museum should prepare to cope with changes caused by the rise in social media. Since 2010, the Department of Social Education of the Ministry of Education of Taiwan has promoted the adoption of social media for the museum sector in Taiwan.

This study attempts to investigate the adoption of social media in three types of public museums in Taiwan: art museums, history and culture museums and science museums. The museums selected in the study are all located in metropolitan areas. The study consisted of two phrases. The first phase was a general survey of social media tools adopted on the museum’s websites. The second phase included data collected from mail questionnaire and interview to examine the various issues related to the management and measurement of success of social media applications. Contrast to similar study (López et al, 2010), data analysis of this study revealed that there were no difference across the three types of museums in terms of the adoption Web 2.0 tools. This might due to all public museums in Taiwan were encouraged by the government to adopt social media tools. Among the tools, Facebook was the mostly adopted tools across all museums. Analysis of questionnaire and interview data showed that the primary objective of adopting social media is for marketing. From operational management perspective, the maintenance of social media site was mostly run by the museum’s public service or education related department. Due to differences among museums in terms of staff numbers and budget, it’s unusual to have dedicated staff for the maintenance of social media site and the division of labor among staffs also varied among museums. Many interviewees believed that both management and curatorial support play a key role for success. It was also interesting to find out that for some museums, it was staff’s own interest that lead to the set up of social media site while most of the museums fall into the category of following the instruction of the management. Most museums included in the study did not have a clear measurement of success. Moreover, our results revealed that the studied museums did not take into account the core concept of Web 2.0 “user participation” while setting up the goals for adopting social media. Museums should create more opportunities of true participation via social media, such as front-end evaluation of exhibition development. Museums should also review their social media strategies periodically to meet the continued demands of the public.


第一章 緒論.......................................................................1
第二章 文獻探討...............................................................5
第一節 社交媒體興起…………………………………………5
一、什麼是社交媒體………………………………………………5
二、社交媒體的特性………………………………………………6
三、社交媒體的類型………………………………………………7
四、社交媒體的應用………………………………………………9
第二節 博物館與社交媒體…………………………………10
一、博物館溝通新管道…………………………..………………10
二、參與性博物館………………………………………..………11
三、社交媒體於博物館中的實踐………………………….……13
第三節 博物館的機會與挑戰…………………………..……19
一、社交媒體為博物館創造機會……………………….………19
二、社交媒體導入博物館的可能困境………………….………20
第四節 博物館社交媒體策略規劃與績效評量…………….24
一、博物館社交媒體策略規劃………………….………………24
二、博物館社交媒體評量……………………….………………27

第三章 研究方法…………………………………..………31
第一節 研究理念與架構…………………………..…………31
第二節 研究對象…………………………………..…………33
第三節 研究設計與流程…………………………..…………34
一、博物館導入Web 2.0工具現況……………………………34
二、博物館社交媒體營運現況……………………………..……34
第四節 研究限制………………………………..……………38
第四章 研究結果………………………………..…………39
第一節 博物館導入Web 2.0工具現況調查……..…………39
一、非Web2.0工具………………………………………………42
二、Web2.0工具……………………….…………………………43
第二節 博物館社交媒體營運現況分析………….…………46
一、使用動機………………………………...……………………46
二、目標觀眾……………………….…………..…………………50
三、管理者…………………………………...……………………54
四、預期目標……………………….…………..…………………60
五、操作策略………………………………...……………………65
六、工具選擇……………………….…………..…………………82
七、經營困境………………………………...……………………87
八、營運成效評估……………….…………..…………………93
九、未來發展………………………………...…………………100
十、小結……………………….…………..……………..………105
第五章 討論與建議………………………………………106
參考文獻……………………………………………...……112
附錄…………………………………………………...……115
附錄一 博物館社交媒體營運現況調查問卷……...………115


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