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研究生:簡國柱
研究生(外文):Ceien,Kuochu
論文名稱:台灣國小六年級學童數學文字題解題歷程
論文名稱(外文):An exploratory study of Taiwanese sixth grader′s problem solving process regarding mathematical textual test items
指導教授:楊富堯
指導教授(外文):Yang,Fuyao
口試委員:楊富堯卜湘麟余泰魁
口試委員(外文):Yang,FuyaoPu,HsianglinYu,Taikuei
口試日期:2012-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:稻江科技暨管理學院
系所名稱:網路系統學系碩士班
學門:電算機學門
學類:網路學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:一致性數學自我效能眼動儀技術不一致性
外文關鍵詞:consistent language probleminconsistent language problemmathematic self-efficacyeye tracker technique
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:143
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
國小學生數學的學習、最大的障礙往往並非出現在數學運算的本身,而是在國語文字的理解;而一致性(consistent language problem, CL problem)與非一致性(inconsistent language problem, ICL problem)問題,更是影響學生解題的時間與正確率的關鍵。本研究分為三個階段進行,第一階段是有關於國小學生在一致性與非一致性數學問題解題表現的假設驗證。研究結果顯示,國小學生在解決一致性問題時,其錯誤率較解決非一致性問題時為低。第二階段則有關國小學生數學自我效能對於數學文字題解題表現的影響。研究結果顯示,高自我效能學生的數學解題成功率顯著地高於低自我效能的學生。最後一個階段則是透過現代眼動儀(eye tracker)技術的資料收集來推論學生數學解題歷程的線索。研究結果顯示,高、低自我效能的學生在閱讀數學題目時,主要的差異表現在注視點的不同,高自我效能學生的閱讀會比較聚焦在關鍵詞、量詞與比較詞上面,其相對應的注視頻率與時間都顯著地高於低自我效能的學生。就方法論而言,本研究除了在統計上驗證相關假設之外,也嘗試利用眼球追蹤方法來比較學生在不同文字表徵中注視點的差異,研究結論將有助於國小數學課程,教材與教法編寫的相關設計。

The most difficult barriers encountered in primary students’ math learning were the textual understandings rather than the calculations itself. The consistent language problem (CL problem) and the inconsistent language problem (ICL problem) were considered as the key factors regarding students’ duration and accuracy in their mathematical problem solving. This study can be divided into three stages. The first one is the verification of the hypothesis regarding students’ mathematic problem solving in consistent and inconsistent language problems. The results indicated that students’ performances were better in consistent language problems. The second stage is the exploration of the influences from self-efficacy toward mathematics problem solving. The results revealed that high self-efficacy students outperformed their counterparts. The final stage is the comparisons of students’ problem solving process with the data collected from modern eye tracker. The analysis showed that students with different self-efficacies revealed different focus points when reading math problems in which the higher math self-efficacy group would spend more time on keywords, quantifying words and comparative words. Methodologically, besides statistical hypothesis verifications, this study tried using eye tracker to investigate the differences between students’ focus points in their readings of consistent and inconsistent language math problems hoping to provide conclusions that could be beneficial to the curriculum and teaching materials designing of mathematics in primary schools.
目 錄
摘 要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌 謝 iii
目 錄 iv
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與背景 1
第二章 文獻探討 4
2.1 一致性假說 4
2.2 數學自我效能對於數學文字題解題表現的影響 5
2.3 眼球追蹤技術與外部資訊讀取序列—高數學自我效能學生與低數學自我效能學生,解數學文字題,注視點之差異性 7
第三章 研究方法 9
3.1.第一階段實驗 9
3.1.1受測者 10
3.1.2實驗材料 10
3.1.3.研究變數之操作型定義 12
3.1.4實驗程序 13
3.2第二階段實驗 14
第四章 研究結果分析 17
4.1.一致性效果與自我效能分析對於解題正確性的效果 17
4.2.針對高自我效能與低自我效能學生,透過眼動儀觀察解題歷程分析 17
4.2.1加法一致性實驗題 18
4.2.2加法不一致性實驗題 19
4.2.3減法一致性實驗題 21
4.2.4減法不一致性實驗題 22
4.2.5乘法一致性實驗題 24
4.2.6乘法不一致性實驗題 25
4.2.7除法一致性實驗題 26
4.2.8除法不一致性實驗題 28
4.3. 一致性效果與自我效能分析對於目標區域注視點數目的效果 30
第五章 結論與建議 31
5.1 研究結論 31
5.1.1 影響一致性語言與非一致性語言文字題解題表現 31
5.1.2數學自我效能對數學文字題解題表現的影響 31
5.1.3學生解數學文字題時,會因一致性效果差異性,而產生注視點的差異。學生因數學我效能的高低,影響解題歷程中,產生注視點的差異。 32
5.2 研究貢獻 32
5.2.1 一致性與非一致性的題目呈現方式 32
5.2.2 學生的自我效能影響 33
5.2.3 國小學生的數學解題閱讀歷程 33
5.3 研究限制與建議 34
5.4 未來建議 34
參考文獻 36
中文部分 36
期刊報章論文 36
會議論文集 36
學位論文 36
英文部分 37
書籍 37
期刊報章論文 38
附 錄 40
附錄一:數學自我效能量表 40
附錄二:教師評比量表 44
附錄三:眼動儀實驗操作照片 45
附錄四:數學自我效能與一致性問題對於解題正確性之影響 56
附錄五:變異數分析表格 58


期刊報章論文
[1]何縕琪、林清山。表徵策略教學對提升國小低解題正確率學生解題表現之效果研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系教育心理學報,27,259-279,1994。[3]

會議論文集
[2]唐大崙。觀其眸子,人焉廋哉以眼球追蹤法探索行為背後歷程。 眼球追蹤理論與技術研討會。台北市:國立台灣師範大學,2006。[12]
[3]蔡介立。眼球運動與閱讀歷程。眼球追蹤理論與技術研討會。台北市:國立台灣師範大學,2006。[13]

學位論文
[4]何麗君。國中學生自我效能、集體效能與學業成就之相關研究。國立彰化師範大學教育研究所,碩士論文,彰化縣,2005。[2]
[5]吳知賢。歸因再訓練在國小班級情境實施之研究:錄影媒體教學實驗。國立政治大學教育研究所,博士論文,1996。[8]
[6]沈佩綺。高中學生數學自我概念、數學自我效能與數學學業成就關係之研究。國立彰化師範大學研究所,碩士論文,2009。[1]
[7]林重岑。高中職學生自我調節學習的結構模式分析。國立彰化師範大學教育研究所,項士論文,彰化縣,2002。[4]
[8]洪菁穗(民 87)。探討國中生在理化科的學術地位、自我效能與學習成敗之歸因之關係。 國立台灣大學物理研究所碩士論文,1998。[5]
[9]趙柏原。國中學生自我效能、求助態度與課業求助行為之相關研究。國立彰化師範大學教育研究所,碩士論文,彰化縣,1998。[9]
[10]劉信雄。國小學生認知風格、學習策略、自我效能、與學業成就關係之研究。國立政治大學教育研究所,博士論文,1992。[7]
[11]鄭千佑。虛擬教具對國小學生等值分數彈性思考表現之影響。國立台灣師範大學資訊教育研究所,碩士論文,台北市,2009。[10]
[12]鄭淑米。台中市高中職學生數學焦慮、數學自我效能與數學學業成就關係之研究。國立臺灣師範大學數學系在職進修碩士班,碩士論文,台北市,2006。[6]
[13]龔玉春。國小教師認知教學策略與學生數學成就、數學自我效能之相相關研究。國立屏東師範學院教育心裡與輔導學系,碩士論文,2009。[11]

書籍
[14] Bandura , A . Social foundations of thought and action : A social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs , NJ ; Prentice-Hall .1986 [10]
[15] Bandura , A . . Self-efficacy:The exercise of control , Freeman , New York .1997. [11]
[16] Bandura, A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1997. [9]
[17] Kantowski, M. G. The use of heuristics in problem solving : An exploratory study final report. National Science foundation project sed 77-18543. 1980.[1]
[18] Mayer, R. E. Educational psychology: a cognitive approach. Boston: Little, Brown.1985. [2]

[19] Ryan,A.M.,& Pintrich,P.R. Achievement and social motivational influences on help seeking in the classroom. In Karabenick(ED.), Strategic help seeking:Implications for learning and teaching (pp.61-94).Mahwah,NJ:Erlbaum. 1997.[16]
[20] Schoenfeld, A. H. Mathematical prolem solving. New York: Academic.1985. [3]

期刊報章論文
[21] A. B. Lewis and R. E. Mayer, "Students' miscomprehension of relational statements in arithmetic word problems," Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 79, pp. 363-371, 1987. [5]
[22] Anjum, R. . The impact of self-efficacy on mathematics achievement of primary school children.Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 21(3), 61-78.2006 [4]
[23] Bandura,A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human American Psychologist,37,122-147. [12]
[24] Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. Therelationship of mathematics self-efficacy expectations to the selection of sciencebased college majors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23(3), 329-345.1983 [13]
[25] Lohse .G. L. and E. J. Johnson, "A comparison of two process tracing methods for choice tasks," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 68, pp. 28-43, 1996 [20]
[26]Hoffman, J. E., Subramaniam, B. The role of visual attention in saccadic eye movements. Perception and psychophysics, 57(6), 787795.1995. [22]
[27]Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G., & Bieschke, K. J. Mathematics self-efficacy: Sources and relation to science-based career choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 38(4), 424-430. 1991.[14]
[28]M. A. Just and P. A. Carpenter, "Eye fixations and cognitive processes," Cognitive Psychology, vol. 8, pp. 441-480, 1976. [21]
[29]M. Hegarty, R. E. Mayer, and C. A. Monk, "Comprehension of arithmetic word problems: A comparison of successful and unsuccessful problem solvers," Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 87, pp. 18-32, 1995. [7]
[30]M. Hegarty, R. E. Mayer, and C. E. Green, "Comprehension of arithmetic word problems: Evidence from students' eye fixations," Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 84, pp. 76-84, 1992. [6]
[31] Lohse .G. L. and E. J. Johnson, "A comparison of two process tracing methods for choice tasks," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 68, pp. 28-43, 1996 [20] [15]
[32]R.-F. Day, "Examining the validity of the Needleman–Wunsch algorithm in identifying decision strategy with eye-movement data," Decision Support Systems, vol. 49, pp. 396-403, 2010. [17]
[33]R.-F. Day, C.-H. Lin, W.-H. Huang, and S.-H. Chuang, "Effects of music tempo and task difficulty on multi-attribute decision making: An eye-tracking approach," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 25, pp. 130-143, 2009. [18]
[34]R.-F. Day, T.-W. Shy, and J.-C. Wang, "The effect of flash banners onmulti-attribute decision making: Is the flash banner a distractor or a source of arousal," Psychology & Marketing, vol. 23, pp. 369-382, 2006. [19]
[35]Verschaffel, L., De Corte, E., & Pauwels, A. (1992). Solving compare problems : An eye movement test of Lewis and Mayer’s consistency hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 85-94. [8]

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