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研究生:余思賢
研究生(外文):Yu, SzuHsien
論文名稱:達瑪烷次苷運動增能特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Ergogenic Properties of Ginsenoside Dammarane Oligo-Sapogenins
指導教授:郭家驊郭家驊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo, ChiaHua
口試委員:賴政秀許美智張正琪李信達
口試委員(外文):Lai, ChengHsinHsu, MeiChichChang ChengChiLee, ShinDa
口試日期:2012-06-27
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:臺北巿立體育學院
系所名稱:競技運動訓練研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:競技運動學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:人蔘皂苷肝醣氧化壓力肌肉新生適應源刺激效應
外文關鍵詞:Ginsenosides,glycogen,oxidative stress,muscle regeneration,hormesis
相關次數:
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目的:探討固定成分之人蔘萃取物達瑪烷次苷(DS)對於運動增能效果與機制。方法:研究一以12名受試者進行隨機對抗平衡雙盲實驗設計,分為安慰劑、DS240、DS480與DS960試驗,根據組別每天口服介入不同劑量之DS (240, 480, 960 mg)或安慰劑共4週後進行單次60分鐘(75% VO2max)腳踏車運動,並於運動後立即給予高碳水化合物飲食;研究二將SD大鼠隨機分為:控制組、DS20、DS60與DS120組,介入期共十週,分別於第九、十週測量肌力與耐力運動表現,耐力運動後測量肌肉氧化壓力與抗氧化酵素指標;實驗三與實驗二之分組劑量與介入方式相同,於第十週分為非運動組以及離心運動組,離心運動組進行單次下坡跑步運動。結果:DS240顯著提升運動後肌肉肝醣儲存速率與AKT磷酸化,且降低血糖反應與肝醣合成酶磷酸化。DS960顯著提升運動後TC值、TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances)與肌酸激酶(creatine kinase),此外也降低發炎指標 (白血球、噬中性球、IL-6) (實驗一);達瑪烷次苷組肌力顯著高於控制組,低至高劑量組顯著的抑制運動後肌肉氧化傷害指標MDA (malondialdehyde)上升,但是中高劑量組於非運動狀態下肌肉MDA顯著升高。此外低劑量組抑制肌肉檸檬酸合成酶與SOD (superoxide dismutase)活性的降低,並提升肌肉抗氧化酵素活性(實驗二);中低劑量抑制離心運動後肌肉損傷、M1巨噬細胞浸潤、發炎基因表現與發炎訊息路徑(NFκB與Erk)的上升。除此之外,長期服用高劑量達瑪烷次苷組增加肌肉細胞新生、M2巨噬細胞數目與少量活化發炎路徑(實驗三)。根據上述研究結果推論達瑪烷次苷可以發展為運動員之運動增能劑,並推測此增能效果可能經由適應源刺激效應(hormesis)促進肌肉新生作用而來。
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the ergogenic properties and involved mechanism of Panax ginseng standard extract Dammarane oligo-sapogenins (DS) in both humans and rats. Methods: Study-I: In a randomized double blind counter-balancing study, 12 male subjects ingested different doses of DS (240, 480, 960 mg/kg/day DS) or placebo for 4 weeks. All subjects performed an acute 60-min cycling exercise (75% VO2max) 24-h after the last DS supplementation. High carbohydrate meal was provided immediately after exercise to all subjects. Muscle biopsy was performed immediately and 3-h after exercise. Study-II: Rats were randomly divided into four group, including control, DS20 (20 mg/kg), DS60 (60 mg/kg) and DS120 (120 mg/kg). All rats were orally supplemented with respective dose of DS or placebo for 10 weeks. Muscle strength was determined by wire suspension test on 9th week. After the last dose of treatment, half number of rats from each group were performed an acute bout of exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). Muscle tissues were isolated immediately after exercise. Study-III: Rats were randomized into four groups and treated with DS similar to study-II. Acute eccentric exercise (EE) was performed on the treadmill after the last treatment. Results: Study-I results showed that muscle glycogen storage rates and AKT phosphorylation of DS240 group was greater than those of placebo group. The glucose response and phospho-glycogen synthase (pGS)/GS of placebo were greater than those of DS240. Furthermore, higher testosterone/cortisol ratio (TC ratio), creatine kinase (CK) and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels and lower inflammatory markers (white blood cells, neutrophils and IL-6) were found in DS960 trial compared to placebo. Data from study-II revealed that DS supplementation significantly increased muscle strength in rats compared with control rats. ESE significantly increased muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) levels along with substantially decreased GSH/GSSG ratio and citrate synthase (CS) activity. However, these changes were significantly attenuated by medium and low dose of DS treatment. On the other hand, medium and high dose of DS increased muscle MDA levels in sedentary rats. Nevertheless, antioxidant enzymes, including GPx (glutathione peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase) and GST (glutathione S-transferase) activities were found to increase in low and medium DS groups. In study-III, high dose of DS supplementation increased cell regeneration and M2 macrophages number in soleus muscle. After low and medium dose treatments, higher protein nitrotyrosylation level, inflammatory markers gene expression, NFκB and Erk activation were found in sedentary groups. 90-min EE induced muscle injury, M1 macrophage infiltration and protein nitrotyrosylation were found, which were associated with activated NFκB and Erk and increased inflammatory gene expression. DS20 and DS60 treatment protected against EE-induced muscle injury and reduced protein oxidative damage. Further evidences showed as reduced NFκB signal transduction pathway and inflammatory gene expression. Conclusion: Results from these studies demonstrated that the beneficial effects of DS supplementation may be linked with the hormesis effect and muscle regeneration capacity. Outcome of the whole study suggest that DS can be applied as an ergogenic product for athletes during competition and training states.
目錄

原創聲明書 ……………………………………………………… ii
學位考試審定書 ………………………………………………… iii
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………… iv
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………… vi
謝誌 ……………………………………………………………… viii
目錄 ……………………………………………………………… ix
表目錄 …………………………………………………………… xi
圖目錄 …………………………………………………………… xii

第壹章 緒論 …………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究背景 ………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的 ………………………………………… 3
第貳章 文獻探討 …………………………………………….. 5
研究一 達瑪烷次苷對於人體運動後骨骼肌肝醣儲存速率之影響 …………………………………………….
5
第一節 肌肉肝醣與運動表現 …………………………… 5
第二節 碳水化合物補充與肌肉肝醣 …………………… 5
第三節 壓力荷爾蒙與胰島素敏感度 …………………… 6
研究二 達瑪烷次苷對於大鼠運動表現及耗竭運動後骨骼肌氧化壓力之影響 ………………………………
7
第一節 能量供應與運動表現 …………………………… 7
第二節 運動、氧化壓力與抗氧化系統 ………………… 7
研究三 達瑪烷次苷對於大鼠肌肉新生與離心運動後肌肉損傷之影響 …..………………..…………………
8
第一節 離心運動、發炎與肌肉損傷 …………………… 8
第二節 NFκB、MAPK與發炎反應 …………………….. 9
第三節 發炎反應與肌肉新生 ………..………………….. 12
第四節 發炎反應與抗氧化系統 ……..………………….. 13
第參章 研究方法 …………………………………………….. 15
第一節 實驗設計 ………………………………………… 15
第二節 受試者與動物照護 ……………………………… 19
第三節 達瑪烷次苷萃取 ………………………………… 21
第四節 運動介入 ………………………………………… 21
第五節 實驗材料與分析方法 …………………………… 24
第六節 研究一前趨動物試驗設計 ……………………… 33
第七節 統計方法 ………………………………………… 33
第肆章 結果與討論 …………………………………………… 34
第一節 結果 ……………………………………………… 34
第二節 討論 ……………………………………………… 75
第伍章 結論與建議 ………………………………………….. 95
第一節 結論 ……………………………………………… 95
第二節 建議 ……………………………………………… 96
參考文獻 ……………………………………………………….. 97
外文部分 …………………………………………………… 97
附錄 …………………………………………………………….. 122
附錄一 PBD1227分析 …………………………………… 122
附錄二 受試者同意書 ……………………………………. 125

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