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研究生:吳健瑋
研究生(外文):Chien-Wei Wu
論文名稱:密閉式撒水頭於火場之動作分析
論文名稱(外文):Actuation Analysis of Close Sprinkler Heads in Fires
指導教授:蘇崇輝蘇崇輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Hwei Su
口試委員:江金龍林文興蘇崇輝
口試委員(外文):Chin-Lung ChiangWen-Hsing LinChung-Hwei Su
口試日期:2012.07.16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:吳鳳科技大學
系所名稱:光機電暨材料研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:142
中文關鍵詞:自動撒水系統密閉式撒水頭認可基準Fire Dynamics Simulator(FDS)集熱板自然對流
外文關鍵詞:The Automatic Sprinkler SystemsApproval Criteria for Close Sprinkler HeadNatural ConvectionFire Dynamics Simulator(FDS)Heat Collect Plate
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:138
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在過去的一個世紀,建築物設置自動撒水系統可以有效保障人員的安全與財產的防護。由於撒水頭的感熱元件,為受到蓄積在天花板上方的自然對流熱的影響撒水動作。本研究運用Factory Mutual Research Corporation提出的Response Time Index作為評估指標,臺灣的消防法規規定,撒水頭迴水板與天花板或樓板的距離不可超過30公分。如撒水頭側面有樑時,可設直徑至少30公分的集熱板,以蓄積熱氣流。使用電腦模擬與實驗的方式,分析集熱板的集熱效應。在有效控制每一次火源燃燒均相同的基準下,集熱板的設置將明顯造成熱對流傳導係數(h)與氣流流速(V)的差異。如裝設不適當的集熱板,會阻礙高溫氣流的流動。因此延遲撒水頭的動作時間。另外分析集熱加強型集熱板的集熱效果。除可快速將感熱元件加熱。實驗結果顯示可以提早1/3的動作時間。
臺灣地區合格的密閉式撒水頭,必須通過「密閉式撒水頭認可基準」的驗證,符合標準的檢測程序。本研究以FDS軟體進行玻璃型撒水頭感熱元件的有效性分析,模擬0.5、2.5MW不同火載量,及極快速與慢速二種燃燒速率時,紀錄感熱元件動作時間下的動作溫度與周遭氣流風速。結果顯示,撒水頭動作情形與檢測環境差異甚大。動作溫度高於標示溫度75℃,但未達197℃。動作時間受「燃燒速度」影響最大。周遭氣流風速大於2.5m/s。由於「各類場所消防安全設備設置標準」規定某部分場所如裝設密閉型撒水頭,將可免設火警自動警報設備。本研究證明檢測程序的數據僅能代表某種控制環境下的效能,仍必須針對火場的熱敏感性加以分析,以確保撒水頭可有效動作。

The automatic sprinkler systems of buildings protect the safety of people and property. In Taiwan, closed sprinkler heads must be qualified by the standard testing procedures of Approval Criteria for Close Sprinkler Head. However, the environmental conditions of the verification process of criteria are different than the actual situations during a fire. The close sprinkler heads are actuated by the natural convection heat accumulated under the ceiling. In this study, the Response Time Index of the Factory Mutual Research Corporation is adopted as the assessing indicators of heat transfer theories. The sensitivity analysis of sprinkler heads are operated in FDS software and many experiments, including the standard type sprinkler, the flush type sprinkler, and concealed sprinkler under different convection transfer coefficients(h)and different air flow velocity(V). The results of the study showed that real actuation situations are significantly different from the test environments of Approval Criteria for Close Sprinkler Head. The phenomenon of the burning rate of a fire significantly affects the actuated time of the sprinkler heads.
The effectiveness of the heat collection plate is also analyzed by comparing the effects between enhanced and normal types in this study. With regard to maintaining the same burning rate of a fire source, the results indicated that, high temperature air is hindered, and the actuated time of the sprinklers are delayed, due to the inappropriate installation of the heat collection plate. The experimental results showed that the heat accumulation effect could be enhanced by an improved plate, and the rupture time will occur earlier about one-third of the time.

目 錄
摘要 I
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
符號說明 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究方法與流程 9
1.2.1熱傳遞之探討 11
1.2.2熱敏感度指標之探討 12
1.2.3動作溫度試驗與熱氣流感應試驗 18
1.2.4火災模擬分析 20
1.3 文獻回顧 21
1.3.1火災成長特性 21
1.3.2國內密閉式撒水頭認可基準 25
1.3.3外國檢驗機構密閉式撒水頭檢試標準 25
第二章 自動撒水設備 30
2.1自動撒水設備之觀念 30
2.1.1自動撒水設備之特性 34
2.1.2撒水頭之分類 35
2.1.3撒水頭之構造 37
2.1.4撒水頭之動作效應 38
2.2天花板噴射流分析 39
2.2.1天花板高度對天花板噴射流之影響 40
2.2.2撒水頭與天花板之距離 46
2.3影響撒水頭動作之因素 50
第三章 NFPA 13撒水系統安裝規定 52
3.1防護區域與間距 52
3.2撒水頭迴水板與天花板間之距離 54
3.3影響撒水頭撒水模式之阻礙物 57
第四章 電腦模擬與實驗方法 62
4.1電腦模擬方法 62
4.1.1 Fire Dynamics Simulator 62
4.2撒水頭熱敏性研究 67
4.2.1一般反應型撒水頭之熱敏性 68
4.2.1.1實驗空間配置 68
4.2.1.2電腦模擬配置 69
4.2.2 優美型撒水頭之熱敏性 70
4.2.2.1 實驗空間配置 70
4.2.3隱藏式撒水頭之熱敏性 71
4.2.3.1實驗空間配置 71
4.2.4集熱板之有效性 72
4.2.4.1實驗空間配置 73
4.2.4.2電腦模擬配置 77
4.3實驗設備 77
4.3.1火源設計 77
4.3.2數據量測 79
第五章 結果與討論 81
5.1一般反應型撒水頭 81
5.2優美型撒水頭 99
5.3隱藏式撒水頭 103
5.4集熱板之有效性 105
第六章 結論與建議 118
6.1結論 118
6.2建議 120
參考文獻 121


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