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研究生:林偉哲
研究生(外文):Wen-Che Lin
論文名稱:肝病末期的腦部磁振造影影像
論文名稱(外文):Neuroimage of MRI in End Stage Liver Disease
指導教授:林慶波林慶波引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Po Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:生物醫學影像暨放射科學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學技術及檢驗學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:肝病末期
外文關鍵詞:Neuroimage
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中文摘要
我們都知道肝臟功能逐漸下降後會演變成末期肝硬化,並因此而影響到許多其他系統的功能,包含腦部在內。末期肝硬化常會導致廣泛的神經精神異常,然而,目前運用先進的磁振造影影像來探討末期肝硬化後,腦部構造與功能的研究並不多。因此,對於腦部構造的變化與臨床表現的相關性仍不清楚。所以在這份論文中,我們試圖探討研究末期肝硬化病人在認知功能與先進磁振造影影像的相關性並試圖找出導致這些表現的可能原因。
我們知道末期肝硬化會同時出現認知與運動功能障礙;而這部分也暗示著腦部基底核可能出現變化。然而在傳統影像上,唯一能被發現的變化是雙側基底核在T1加權影像會出現高訊號的表現,並且可能是與錳金屬過度沉積有相關。但是基底核是否因此發生體積與外型的變化並不清楚。若是有,這些變化與錳沉積程度的相關性目前亦不明。另外,這樣的基底核變化是否造成臨床心智表現下降也未知。在第一部份,我們運用自動運算分析的電腦軟體來計算3D T1加權影像中深部腦灰值的體積與形狀。發現隨著末期肝硬化疾病嚴重度增加,基底核的體積出現萎縮而形狀也會有所改變。我們並發現基底核的缺損,與錳沉積程度有高度相關且進而可能造成心智上的改變。這部分的發現,幫助我們能更深入研究末期肝硬化的腦功能。
除了錳沉積外,另外一般所熟知的腦水腫,除了可以發生在急性肝衰竭外,無論是否有肝腦病變出現,腦水腫也可在慢性肝硬化中出現。而腦水腫程度是有可能會影響到病人的癒後。在第二部份,我們運用靜止息功能性磁振造影與磁振擴散張量影像技術,同時研究病人腦功能聯結、腦水腫與肝腦病變程度的相關性。我們發現腦水腫會改變腦部的時間同調性進而影響網路的聯結性。而這樣的變化是會造成末期肝硬化病人行為與意識狀態的改變。我們相信,藉由找到合適的目標,靜止息功能性磁振造影與磁振擴散張量影像技術將可以提供我們更多有意義的補充資訊協助我們診斷肝腦病變與監測病程變化。
Abstract
Although end stage liver disease is the consequence of liver function impairment and liver fibrosis, it can affect multi-systems, including the brain. Liver cirrhosis is frequently associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric abnormalities. However, investigation of brain in structural and functional aspect by using advanced MRI in liver cirrhosis is limited. There is still a gap between the clinical presentation and neuroanatomy in these particular subjects. Therefore, we focus on cognition function and MRI finding in these projects and try to bridge the causal-relationship between each other.
Chronic liver disease frequently includes cognitive and movement disorders, which suggests an alteration of the striatum. With the exception of basal ganglia hyperintensities evident on T1-weighted images indicative of manganese deposition, radiographic findings are non-specific. Volumetric and morphometric analysis of deep gray matter (DGM) is limited. Whether or not DGM undergoes degeneration, and whether or not this change is associated with pallidal hyperintensity and cognitive performance is currently unknown in cirrhotic patients. In the first step, the volume and shape of each DGM structure were automatically analyzed via the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library by using 3-dimenstional T1-weighted MR images. Our findings strongly suggest that lower DGM volume develops according to the severity of the liver cirrhosis. We also found that the manganese deposition might contribute striatum deficit. These findings uphold the value of additional psychomotor research associated with liver cirrhosis.
In addition to manganese deposition, cerebral edema, a well-known feature of acute liver disease, can also occur in cirrhotic patients regardless of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and adversely affect prognosis. In the secondary step, we further characterize and correlate functional HE abnormalities in the brain to cerebral edema using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. We found that cerebral edema can be linked to altered cerebral temporal architecture that modifies network connectivity in HE which is further associated with brain edema and behavior and consciousness deterioration. We believe, through appropriate targets, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging may provide relevant supplemental information for monitoring HE and serve as a new biomarker for clinical diagnosis.
Contents
論文電子檔著作權授權書...............................I
論文審定同意書......................................II
中文摘要..........................................III
Abstract........................................IV
Contents.........................................V
List of Figures..................................VIII
List of Tables...................................IX

Chapter 1. Introduction..........................1
1.1 Background...................................1
1.1.1 Desmetabolism brain in liver cirrhosis.1
1.1.2 Manganese..............................2
1.1.3 Ammonia................................3
1.1.4 Cerebral edema (CE)....................4
1.1.5 Conventional MRI findings in liver cirrhosis MRI
Marker of Manganese Accumulation within the
CNS.....................................5
1.1.6 MRI Marker of cerebral edema............6
1.1.7 Diffusion weighted image and Diffusion tensor
image...................................7
1.1.8 Diffusion tensor imaging................9
1.1.9 Resting-state functional MRI............11
 Resting-state Functional Connectivity.....12
 Brain Networks............................12
1.2 Motivation and Purpose........................14
1.2.1 Motivation..............................14
1.2.2 Purpose.................................16

Chapter 2. Significant Volume Reduction and Shape
Abnormalities of Striatum in cases of Chronic
Liver Cirrhosis...................................20
2.1 Introduction..................................20
2.2 Materials and Methods.........................22
2.2.1 Participants............................22
2.2.2 Neuropsychological tests................23
2.2.3 MR data acquisition.....................23
2.2.4 Image Processing........................23
 Deep grey matter volume estimation...........23
 Total intracranial volume estimation.........24
 Vertex-based shape analysis..................25
 Calculating the pallidal index...............25
2.3 Statistical Analysis..........................26
2.3.1 Demographic data and clinical variables.26
2.3.2 Global and regional tissue volume comparisons.26
2.3.3 Vertex-wised statistical analysis.......26
2.3.4 Correlation between DGM volume and clinical
variables...............................26
2.3.5 Correlation between DGM volume and
neuropsychological tests................27
2.4 Results.......................................28
2.4.1 Clinical characteristics and laboratory
profiles................................28
2.4.2 Decreased volume of putamen and caudate nucleus
in cirrhotic subjects...................28
2.4.3 Shape Analysis..........................29
 Putamen hape.................................29
 Caudate shape................................29
 Globus pallidus shape........................29
2.4.4 Association of demographic and clinical variables
on DGM volume...........................30
2.4.5 Decreased deep GM volume correlated to poorer
cognitive test results..................30
2.5 Discussion…...................................31
2.6 Conclusions...................................34

Chapter 3. Connectivity of Default-Mode Network is Associated with Cerebral Edema in Hepatic Encephalopathy.41
3.1 Introduction..................................41
3.2 Materials and Method..........................43
3.2.1 Subjects................................43
3.2.2 Neuropsychological tests................45
3.2.3 Image acquisition.......................46
 DTI acquisition and analysis.................46
 Resting-state fMRI acquisition and analysis..47
 Generation of seed regions of interest and
calculation of functional connectivity....48
 Group level analyses.........................48
 Generation of ROIs...........................48
3.2.4 Statistical analysis....................50
3.3 Results.......................................51
3.3.1 Changes of functional connectivity and brain
edema in cirrhotic patients.............51
3.3.2 Association of functional connectivity and
diffusion indices in DMN................52
3.3.3 Correlation between functional connectivity of DMN
and laboratory and cognitive tests......52
3.4 Discussion....................................53
3.5 Conclusions...................................56

Chapter 4. Future work............................65
4.1 Advance MRI in cirrhotic patients with and without
portosystemic shunt...........................65
4.1.1 Our preliminary result of rest-state fMRI showed
functional connectivity difference between
patients with and without SPSS..........66
 Material and Method..........................66
 Results......................................66
 Conclusion...................................66
4.2 Advance MRI in cirrhotic patients before and after liver
transplantation...............................67
4.3 Advance MRI in Hepatic coma...................68
5. Contribution of our works................ .....77

Abbreviations.....................................80
Reference.........................................81
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