(3.238.99.243) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/17 00:03
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:澳雲娜
研究生(外文):Oyun-Erdene Ravdandash
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of The Role of Money and Individualism on Consumer Ethics: An Exploratory Study in Mongolia
指導教授:盧龍泉盧龍泉引用關係
口試委員:蕭至惠沈宗奇
口試日期:2013-01-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:53
外文關鍵詞:consumer ethicsthe role of moneyindividualismMongolian consumer
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:254
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:14
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Growing economy and business environments lead to changes of consumer interests, demands, acquisitions and many other concepts of business. Consequently, comprehensive researches on consumer behavior and ethical beliefs enhance marketing strategies, revealing great opportunities for business, especially in Mongolia, a country that lacks previous researches on consumer ethics.
In order to understand Mongolian consumer ethical beliefs and behavior as well as ways how culture dimensions and personality characteristics influence consumer ethical beliefs, this study has three major purposes as follows: first, to analyze, to understand, and to explore Mongolian consumer ethical beliefs; second, to investigate relationships between personality characteristics considering the “role of money” and consumer ethical beliefs in Mongolia; third, to investigate relationships between cultural dimensions of binaries “individualism” and “consumer ethical beliefs” in Mongolia.
The current research was conducted on the basis CES and MES. In addition, the research specifically uses structural equation modeling to investigate the impact of the role of money and individualism on consumer ethical beliefs.
Although, the respondents of survey 320 Mongolian consumers, and most of respondents were female (54.06%) and between age 18 ~ 35 (73.75%). The present study results shows the role of money and individualism were significant related to consumer ethical beliefs, and Mongolian consumers with high the role of money.
Therefore, some important implications for marketing management and marketing strategy derived from the results. The current study examined a single country; the results should benefit managers and marketers in understanding ethical beliefs of Mongolian consumers. Marketers should be able to identify and determine consumers according to their levels of ethical beliefs and to perform efficient strategies for each segment.

Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………...1
1.1 Background of Mongolian Consumer………………………………………1
1.2 Importance of the study…………………………………………………….3
1.3 Literature Overview…………………………………………………...……4
1.4 Literature Deficiency……………...………………………………………..7
1.5 Purpose of the Study…...…………………………………………………...8
1.6 Research Process……………………………………………………………9
Chapter 2 Literature Review…………………………………………………………11
2.1 Consumer Ethics…………………………………………………………..11
2.2 The Role of Money………………………………………………………..15
2.3 Individualism……………………………………………………………...17
2.4 Research Model…………………………………………………………...19
2.5 Hypothesis……………………………………………………………..….20
2.5.1 The Role of Money and Consumer Ethics……………………………20
2.5.2 Individualism and Consumer Ethics………………………………….21
Chapter 3 Methodology………………………………………………………………23
3.1 Measures…………………………………………………………………..23
3.1.1 Measurement of Constructs…………………………………………..23
3.1.2 Consumer Ethics……………………………………………………...23
3.1.3 The Role of Money…………………………………………………...26
3.1.4 Individualism…………………………………………………………27
3.2 Sample and Procedure…………………………………………………….28
Chapter 4 Research Results…………………………………………………………..30
4.1 Sample Distribution……………………………………………………….30
4.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis……………………………………………..32
4.3 Structural Equation Model………………………………………………...37
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion………………………………………………..40
5.1 Research Discussions and Implications…………………………………...40
5.2 Research Limitations and Suggestions……………………………………43
References……………………………………………………………………………45
Appendix……………………………………………………………………………..51

1.Alain d’Astous and A. Legendre: 2009, Understanding Consumers’ Ethical Justifications: A Scale for Appraising Consumers’ Reasons for Not Behaving Ethically, Journal of Business Ethics 87(2), 255-268.
2.Albert, L. S. and L. M. Horowitz: 2009, Attachment Styles and Ethical Behavior: Their Relationship and Significance in the Marketplace, Journal of Business Ethics 87(3), 299-316.
3.Alkailani, M., I. A. Azzam and A. B. Athamneh: 2012, Replicating Hofstede in Jordan: Ungeneralized, Reevaluating the Jordanian Culture, International Business Research 5(4), 71-80.
4.Blodgett, J. G., L. C. Lu, G. M. Rose and S. J. Vitell: 2001, Ethical Sensitivity to Stakeholder Interests: A Cross-Cultural Comparison, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 190-202.
5.Bock, T. D. and P. Van Kenhove: 2010, Consumer Ethics: The Role of Self-Regulatory Focus, Journal of Business Ethics 97(2), 241-255.
6.Brown, T. A: 2006, Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research, The Guilford Press.
7.Chang, H. H. and S. W. Chen: 2009, Consumer Perception of Interface Quality, Security, and Loyalty in Electronic Commerce, Journal of Information & Management 46(7), 411-417.
8.Chiou, J. C. and L. Y. Pan: 2008, The Impact of Social Darwinism Perception, Status Anxiety, Perceived Trust of People, and Cultural Orientation on Consumer Ethical Beliefs, Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 487-502.
9.Chiou, J. S: 2004, The Antecedents of Consumers’ Loyalty toward Internet Service Providers, Journal of Information & Management 41(6), 685-695.
10.Choe, K. L., T. C. Lau and L. P. Tan: 2011, Success, Rich, Motivator and Importance: Establishing the Contributory Factors of Money Ethics towards Business Ethics, European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences (37), 90-98.
11.Du, L. and T. L. P. Tang: 2005, Measurement Invariance Across Gender and Major: The Love of Money Among University Students in People’s Republic of China, Journal of Business Ethics 59(3), 281-293.
12.Dutta-Bergman, M. J. and W. D. Wells: 2002, The Values and Lifestyles of Idiocentrics and Allocentrics in an Individualist Culture: A Descriptive Approach, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(3), 231-242.
13.Economic Outlook of Mongolia 2011, National Development and Innovation Committee (NDIC), 1-40.
14.Erdener, C. and V. Garkavenko: 2011, Money Attitudes in Kazakhstan, Journal of International Business and Economics 12(3), 87-94.
15.Ferrell, O. C. and L. G. Gresham: 1985, A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision Making in Marketing, Journal of Marketing 49(3), 87-96.
16.Gorodnichenko, Y. and G. Roland: Understanding the Individualism-Collectivism Cleavage and its Effects, Lessons from Cultural Psychology, 1-29.
17.Gregory, G. D. and J. M. Munch: 1996, Reconceptualizing Individualism-Collectivism in Consumer Behavior, Advances in Consumer Research, 23, 104-110.
18.Hair, J. F, W. C. Black, B. J. Babin and R. E. Anderson: 2010, Multivariate Data Analysis a global perspective, Seventh Edition, Pearson.
19.Hofstede, G: 1980, Culture’s Consequences (Sage Publications, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA).
20.Hossein, R. D. and D. Hamed: 2012, Comparative Study Effect of Culture from Hofstede Perspective on Purchasing Mobile Phonein Iranand Thailand Society, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(6), 146-154.
21.Hunt, S. D. and S. J. Vitell: 1986, A General Theory of Marketing Ethics, Journal of Macromarketing, 8(Spring), 5-16.
22.Hunt, S. D. and S. J. Vitell: 1993, A General Theory of Marketing Ethics: A Retrospective and Revision in N. C. Smith and J. A. Quelch (eds.), Ethics in Marketing (Homewood, Irwin Inc), 775-784.
23.Husted, B. W. and D. B. Allen: 2008, Toward a Model of Cross-Cultural Business Ethics: The Impact of Individualism and Collectivism on the Ethical Decision-Making Process, Journal of Business Ethics, 82(2), 293-305.
24.Jones, T. M: 1991, Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model, Academy of Management, The Academy of Management Review 16(2), 366-395.
25.Kavak, B., E. Gürel, C. Eryiğit and Ö. Ö. Tektaş: 2009, Examining the Effects of Moral Development Level, Self-Concept, and Self-Monitoring on Consumers’ Ethical Attitudes, Journal of Business Ethics 88(1), 115-135.
26.Kulkarni, S. P., T. Hudson, N. Ramamoorthy, A. Marchev, P. Georgieva-Kondakova and V. Gorskov: 2010, Dimensions of Individualism-Collectivism a Comparative Study of Five Cultures, Current Issues of Business and Law, 5(1), 93-109.
27.Lee, M., A. Pant and A. Ali: 2010, Does the Individualist Consume More? The Interplay of Ethics and Beliefs that Governs Consumerism Across Cultures, Journal of Business Ethics 93(4), 567-581.
28.Lin, H. H. and Y. S. Wang: 2006, An examination of The Determinants of Customer Loyalty in Mobile Commerce Contexts, Journal of Information & Management 43(3), 271-282.
29.Liu, B. C. and T. L. P. Tang: 2011, Does the Love of Money Moderate the Relationship between Public Service Motivation and Job Satisfaction? The Case of Chinese Professionals in the Public Sector, Public Administration Review 71(5), 718-727.
30.Liu, Z., F. Zeng and C. Su: 2009, Does Relationship Quality Matter in Consumer Ethical Decision Making? Evidence from China, Journal of Business Ethics 88, 483-496.
31.Lu, L. C. and C. J. Lu: 2010, Moral Philosophy, Materialism, and Consumer Ethics: An Exploratory Study in Indonesia, Journal of Business Ethics 94(2), 193-210.
32.Lu, L. C., Y. W. Huang and H. H. Chang: 2010, The Effects of The Role of Money, Attitude toward Business and Confucian Dynamism on Consumer Ethics: An Exploratory Study in Taiwan, 1-75.
33.Lu, L.C., H. H. Chang and S. T. Yu: 2011, The Role of Individualism and Collectivism in Consumer Perceptions toward e-Retailers’ Ethics, International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering, 194-197.
34.Luna-Arocas, R. and T. L. P. Tang: 2004, The Love of Money, Satisfaction, and the Protestant Work Ethic: Money Profiles Among University Professors in the U.S.A. and Spain, Journal of Business Ethics 50(4), 329-354.
35.Marshall, R., F. Nixson and B. Walters: 2007, Privatisation and Regulation in an Asian Transitional Economy: The Case of Mongolia, Public Administration and Development, 27, 439-451.
36.Martin, N. M. and D. Prince: 2009, No Harm, No Foul, Journal of Academic and Business Ethics 1, 1-11.
37.Mitchell, T. R. and A. E. Mickel: 1999, The Meaning of Money: An Individual-Difference Perspective, Academy of Management Review 24(3), 568-578.
38.Mitchell, V. W., G. Balabanis, B. B. Schlegelmilch and T. B. Cornwell: 2009, Measuring Unethical Consumer Behavior Across Four Countries, Journal of Business Ethics 88(2), 395-412.
39.Nayeem, T: 2012, Decision-making Styles of Individualist and Collectivist Automobile Consumers in Australia, International Journal of Business and Management 7(16), 44-55.
40.Nkundabanyanga, S. K., B. Mpamizo, C. Omagor and J. M. Ntayi: 2011, The Love of Money, Pressure to Perform and Unethical Marketing Behavior in the Cosmetic Industry in Uganda, International Journal of Marketing Studies 3(4), 40-49.
41.Patwardhan, A. M., M. E. Keith and S. J. Vitell: 2012, Religiosity, Attitude Toward Business, and Ethical Beliefs: Hispanic Consumers in the United States, Journal of Business Ethics 110(1), 61-70.
42.Polonsky, M. J., P. Q. Brito, J. Pinto and N. Higgs-Kleyn: 2001, Consumer Ethics in the European Union: A Comparison of Northern and Southern Views, Journal of Business Ethics 31(2), 117-130.
43.Sardžoska, E. G. and T. L. P. Tang: 2009, Testing a Model of Behavioral Intentions in the Republic of Macedonia: Differences Between the Private and the Public Sectors, Journal of Business Ethics 87(4), 495-517.
44.Sardžoska, E. G. and T. L. P. Tang: 2012, Work-Related Behavioral Intentions in Macedonia: Coping Strategies, Work Environment, Love of Money, Job Satisfaction, and Demographic Variables, Journal of Business Ethics 108(3), 373-391.
45.Schneider, H., J. Krieger and A. Bayraktar: 2011, The Impact of Intrinsic Religiosity on Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs: Does It Depend on the Type of Religion? A Comparison of Christian and Moslem Consumers in Germany and Turkey, Journal of Business Ethics 102(2), 319-332.
46.Sims, R. L and A. E. Gegez: 2004, Attitudes Towards Business Ethics: A Five Nation Comparative Study, Journal of Business Ethics, 50(3), 253-265.
47.Smith, A. and E. C. Hume: 2005, Linking Culture and Ethics: A Comparison of Accountants’ Ethical Belief Systems in the Individualism/ Collectivism and Power Distance Contexts, Journal of Business Ethics, 62(3), 209-220.
48.Steenhaut, S. and P. Van Kenhove: 2005, Relationship Commitment and Ethical Consumer Behavior in a Retail Setting: The Case of Receiving Too Much Change at the Checkout, Journal of Business Ethics 56(4), 335-353.
49.Steenhaut, S. and P. Van Kenhove: 2006, An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships among a Consumer’s Personal Values, Ethical Ideology and Ethical Beliefs, Journal of Business Ethics 64(2), 137-155.
50.Steenhaut, S. and P. Van Kenhove: 2006, The Mediating Role of Anticipated Guilt in Consumers’ Ethical Decision-Making, Journal of Business Ethics 69(3), 269-288.
51.Swaidan, Z: 2012, Culture and Consumer Ethics, Journal of Business Ethics 108(2), 201-213.
52.Tang, T. L. P. and H. Liu: 2012, Love of Money and Unethical Behavior Intention: Does an Authentic Supervisor’s Personal Integrity and Character (ASPIRE) Make a Difference?, Journal of Business Ethics 107(3), 295-312.
53.Tang, T. L. P. and R. K. Chiu: 2003, Income, Money Ethic, Pay Satisfaction, Commitment, and Unethical Behavior: Is the Love of Money the Root of Evil for Hong Kong Employees, Journal of Business Ethics 46(1), 13-30.
54.Tang, T. L. P. and Y. J. Chen: 2008, Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior across College Major and Gender, Journal of Business Ethics 82(1), 1-26.
55.Tang, T. L. P., T. Sutarso, G. M. T. W. Davis, D. Dolinski, A. H. S. Ibrahim and S. L. Wagner: 2008, To Help or Not to Help? The Good Samaritan Effect and the Love of Money on Helping Behavior, Journal of Business Ethics 82(4), 865-887.
56.Tang, T. L. P: 1992, The Meaning of Money Revisited, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 197-202.
57.Tang, T. L. P: 1993, The Meaning of Money: Extension and Exploration of the Money Ethics Scale in a Sample of University Students in Taiwan, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 93-99.
58.Tang, T. L. P: 1995, The Development of A Short Money Ethic Scale: Attitudes Toward Money and Pay Satisfaction Revisited, Personality and Individual Differences, 19(6), 809-817.
59.Tang, T. L. P: 2007, Income and Quality of Life: Does the Love of Money Make a Difference?, Journal of Business Ethics 72(4), 375-393.
60.Vassilikopoulou, A., K. Chatzipanagiotou, G. Siomkos and A. Triantafillidou: 2011, The Role of Consumer Ethical Beliefs in Product-Harm Crises, Journal of Consumer Behaviour 10(5), 279-289.
61.Vitell, S. J. and J. Muncy: 1992, Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Ethical Judgments of the Final Consumer, Journal of Business Ethics 11(8), 585-597.
62.Vitell, S. J. and J. Muncy: 2005, The Muncy-Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale: A Modification and Application, Journal of Business Ethics 62(3), 267-275.
63.Vitell, S. J., J. J. Singh and J. Paolillo: 2007, Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs: The Roles of Money, Religiosity and Attitude toward Business, Journal of Business Ethics 73(4), 369-379.
64.Vitell, S. J., J. Paolillo and J. J. Singh: 2006, The Role of Money, Religiosity in Determining Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs, Journal of Business Ethics 64(2), 117-124.
65.Vitell, S. J: 2003, Consumer Ethics Research: Review, Synthesis and Suggestions for the Future, Journal of Business Ethics 43(1/2), 33-47.
66.Vodosek, M: 2009, The Relationship between Relational Models and Individualism and Collectivism: Evidence from Culturally Diverse Work Groups, International Journal of Phychology, 44(2), 120-128.
67.Westerman, J. W., R. I. Beekun, Y. Stedham and J. Yamaura: 2007, Peers Versus National Culture: Analysis of Antecedents to Ethical Decision-Making, Journal of Business Ethics, 75(3), 239-252.
68.Wong, H. M: 2008, Religiousness, Love of Money, and Ethical Attitudes of Malaysian Evangelical Christians in Business, Journal of Business Ethics 81(1), 169-191.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top