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研究生:蔡晴羽
研究生(外文):Sylvia Qingyu Cai
論文名稱:量子力學的最適理論
論文名稱(外文):Searching the best version of quantum mechanics -- Bohmian mechanics and Everettian interpretation.
指導教授:卞拓蒙
指導教授(外文):Thomas Benda
口試委員:蘇懿賢侯維之
口試委員(外文):Yi-Hsien SuHou, Richard Wei Tzu
口試日期:2013-07-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:哲學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:哲學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:量子力學哲學量子力學詮釋多重宇宙多重心靈波姆力學
外文關鍵詞:measurement probleminterpretation of quantum mechanicsmany minds interpretationmany worlds interpretationBohmian mechanics
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量子力學哲學,旨在提供相應量子力學的詮釋理論以處理量子力學自測量問題以來所派生的疑難,概念議題涵括了:量子力學是否為客觀描述物理實在的理論?量子力學的物理現象是否能支持決定論立場?測量對象是否為外於觀察者主體的客觀實在?薛丁格波動方程式中機率密度(機率振幅)的適用詮釋?由量子力學詮釋所建構成的世界觀,何種才是與真實相符的合理版本?而量子力學世界觀的合理內涵,與評斷者本身持實在論立場與否呈相關。量子力學實為高等數學與高等物理緊密結合的學科,須深入掌握其數學結構的涵義,並以物理實證經驗為佐,方能順其理路,深入了解上述議題。
本文將以新近幾十年間量子力學哲學領域內蓬勃發展的多重宇宙詮釋理論、多重心靈詮釋理論,及較早期的波姆力學,這三者個別所提供的量子力學詮釋內容為梗,去梳理、論證上述議題的內涵,並檢視量子力學中對於時間、空間以及對於微觀現象量測、巨觀現象量測等的思考預設前提,佐以提出個人肘量的合理例示,並在研究過程中構建出個人的多維視角詮釋理論,以竟尋得最佳量子力學詮釋版本之功。

For solving the measurement problem in quantum mechanics, I introduce the two popular interpretations of quantum mechanics -- Everettian quantum mechanics and Bohmian quantum mechanics. Besides, there are two variants of Everettian quantum mechanics: one is many worlds interpretation, another is many minds interpretation.
After appraising the conceptual interpretations from the three candidates, I will provide my consideration for selecting which one is the more reasonable interpretations for quantum mechanics.
Ch1 Measurement problem 1
1.1 Distinctive outcome or not? 3
Ch2 Many worlds in Everettian quantum mechanics 8
2.1 Branches: the actualization of all possibilities 8
2.2 Branches or worlds? 14
2.3 Simon Saunders’s view 35
2.4 The preferred basis problem 45
Ch3 One instantiated world in Bohmian Mechanics 48
3.1 Wave dynamics and particle dynamics 49
3.1.1 Quantum Mechanics with particle trajectories 50
3.1.2 Bohmian Mechanics in non-relativistic and relativistic Quantum Mechanics 53
3.1.3 The problem of surreal quantum trajectory in Bohmian Mechanics 61
3.2 The ontology of the Bohmian world 65
3.2.1 The framework of a wave function and a set of particles 66
3.2.2 Empty waves as the other branches 69
3.2.3 The Result Assumption in Bohmian theory 78
3.2.4 My View: Wave-function realism or not? 86
Ch4 A better interpretation for a determinist as a realist 96
4.1 Many-minds theory 97
4.2 Which interpretation is better for a determinist as a realist? 105
References 112
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Barrett, J.A. (1999). The Quantum Mechanics of Minds and Worlds
Barrett, J.A. (2005). The Preferred-Basis Problem and the Quantum Mechanics of Everything. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Volume 56, Issue 2, 199-220
Benda, T. (2011). What objective probability could be? 14th Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Nancy, France, 2011.
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Deutsch, D. (1996). Comment on Lockwood. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 47, 222-228
Deutsch, D. and Hayden, P. (2000). Information flow in entangled quantum systems. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A vol. 456 no. 1999, 1759-1774
Dürr, D., Goldstein, S. and Zanghi, N. (1995).Bohmian Mechanics as the Foundation of Quantum Mechanics. Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal 21-44
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Hestenes, D. (1993). Spinors, Twistors, Clifford Algebras and Quantum Deformations, Kluwer: Dordercht/Boston, 203–214.
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Lockwood, M. (1996). ‘Many Minds’ Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 47, 159–188
Lockwood, M. (1996). ‘Many Minds’ Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: Replies to Replies. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 47, 445–461
Loewer, B. (1996). Comment on Lockwood. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 47, 229–232
Lombardi, O. and Castagnino, M. (2008). A modal-Hamiltonian interpretation of quantum mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 380–443
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Saunders, S. (1996). Comment on Lockwood. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 47, 241-248
Saunders, S. and Wallace, D. (2008). Branching and Uncertainty. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 59, 293-305
Saunders, S. and Wallace, D. (2008). Saunders and Wallace Reply. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 59, 315-317
Vaidman, L. (2003). The Reality in Bohmian Quantum Mechanics or Can You Kill with an Empty Wave Bullet? Foundations of Physics, 35, 299-312
Wallace, D. (2002). Worlds in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 637–661
Wallace, D. (2006). Epistemology quantized: circumstances in which we should come to believe in the Everett interpretation. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 57, 655-689
Wallace, D. (2008). The Quantum Measurement Problem: State of Play. Ashgate Companion to the New Philosophy of Physics
Wallace, D. (2010). Decoherence and Ontology Many Worlds? Everett, Quantum Theory, and Reality, 53-72
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Zeh, H.D. (2006). Roots and Fruits of Decoherence. Retrieved from arXiv.org > quant-ph > arXiv: quant-ph/0512078

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