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研究生:張嘉辰
研究生(外文):Chia-Chen Chang
論文名稱:荔枝葉之三烯生育醇天然物及其他相生相剋物質研究
論文名稱(外文):Tocotrienols and other allelopathic compounds from leaves of Litchi chinensis
指導教授:周昌弘周昌弘引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國醫藥大學
系所名稱:生態暨演化生物學研究所碩士班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:158
中文關鍵詞:荔枝三烯生育醇植物相生相剋
外文關鍵詞:Litchi chinensistocotrienolallelopathy
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荔枝是為廣為人知的亞熱帶及熱帶水果,具高經濟價值,其所含諸多有益人體之成分,且野外荔枝樹下發現鮮少植物的生長,因此本研究分成兩部分,第一部分分離及純化荔枝葉中具保健功能潛力之天然化合物,第二部分則探討荔枝樹具植物相生相剋之潛力天然物。
第一部分以利用管柱色層分析法從荔枝葉中萃取分離、純化並鑑定天然物。共分出九種新的三烯生育醇 (tocotrienols),分別為litchtocotrienol A~I,及四種已知化合物,4-hydroxybenzaldehye、procyanidin A2、(-)-epicatechin、4-hydroxy-3-methoxybisnbola-1,10-diene。Tocotrienols類衍生物已有文獻指出具抗癌和抗氧化活性,本研究所分離出的tocotrienols類是否具生物活性,則可進一步研究荔枝葉是否適合開發為抗癌保健食品。
第二部分以荔枝葉粉混土壤於盆栽實驗,以檢試對大花咸豐草之生長影響栽培之前二十三天對大花咸豐草之苗木具生長抑制效果,亦降低生物量,但第三十五天後卻喪失抑制效果。進一步將荔枝土壤經滅菌 (sterilization) 後將土壤置於培養盆中並加入二十分之一量的荔枝葉粉,再種植大花咸豐草幼苗。結果顯示,荔枝葉粉混以滅菌土壤後不具抑制效用,並對大花咸豐草幼苗和生物量具促進作用。然而無滅菌土壤則仍具抑制效用。此顯示土壤經滅菌後已失去土壤微生物,無法將荔枝葉的天然物分解成植物相生相剋作用物質,但無滅菌的土壤仍具微生物的作用,使荔枝葉的天然物釋放出來而相生相剋作用。進一步研究指出葉分解的化合物為4-hydroxy benzaldehye,其濃度在1 mM以上才具顯著抑制效果,上述結果知荔枝葉中相生相剋化合物與土壤中微生物可能具有直接相關,未來將進一步深入研究其機制。


Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a tropical and subtropical plant with high commercial value. In the field, there are relatively few understory species on the floor of litchi plants. Firstly, litchi leaves contain many natural product, and we have tried to isolate pure compounds in order to develop these compounds to be highly potential as a healthy food. Secondly, it is aiming to understand whether litchi plants may exhibit allelochemical potential.
In part one, methanolic extracts of litchi leaves were subjected to column chromatography. Nine new tocotrienols compounds (Litchitocotrienol A~I), and four known compounds (4-hydroxybenzaldehye, procyanidin A2, (-)-epicatechin, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybisnbola-1,10-diene) were isolated and identified. These compounds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-oxidant activity. The above results of litchi leaves have the high potential to develop as anti-cancer healthy food.
In part two of pot experiment the lithci leaves exhibited inhibitory effect on seedling growth of Bidens pilosa during the first 23 days. But the inhibitory effect was disappeared 35 days after. However, the inhibitory effect of leaf powder against B. pilosa was decreased in the sterilized soil, indicating that the sterilized soil might lose the microbial involvement leading the litchi leaves were not be add to degrade the products into allelochemical agent. The alleolchemical, 4-hydroxybenzaldehye, isolated in the litchi leaves exhibited inhibitory effects on radicle growth of B. pilosa at 1 mM in the bioassay. It is concluded that allelochemicals in litchi leaves may involve in the interaction between plants and microbes. Futher studies should clarify the interaction between litchi leaves with soil microorganisms.


致謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
壹、 前言 1
一、 研究目的和動機 1
二、 生育醇 (tocopherol) 和三烯生育醇 (tocotrienol) 之文獻回顧 3
三、 荔枝介紹 7
(一)、 形態特徵 7
(二)、 歷史典故 7
(三)、 氣候環境 7
三、 荔枝藥用和化合物分析之文獻回顧 8
(一)、 中醫藥 8
(二)、 西醫 8
四、 植物相生相剋研究之概述 12
(一)、 揮發作用 (volatilization) 13
(二)、 淋溶作用 (leaching) 13
(三)、 分泌作用 (root exudation) 13
(四)、 植株殘體於土壤中的分解作用(decompostition of plant residues in soil) 14
貳、 材料與方法(一) 15
荔枝 (Litchi chinensis) 中化合物分離與純化 15
一、 實驗材料與儀器 15
二、 分離流程 15
參、 結果(一) 21
一、 荔枝甲醇萃取物之成分分離結果 21
(一)、 化合物1 (Litchtocotrienol A) 21
(二)、 化合物2 (Litchtocotrienol B) 34
(三)、 化合物3 (Litchtocotrienol C) 45
(四)、 化合物4 (Litchtocotrienol D) 56
(五)、 化合物5 (Litchtocotrienol E) 67
(六)、 化合物6 (Litchtocotrienol F) 78
(七)、 化合物7 (Litchtocotrienol G) 90
(八)、 化合物8 (Litchtocotrienol H) 102
(九)、 化合物9 (Litchtocotrienol I) 115
(十)、 化合物10 (4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) (10) 128
(十一)、 化合物11 (Procyanidin A2) (11) 130
(十二)、 化合物12 (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybisnbola-1,10-diene) (12) 132
(十三)、 化合物13 ((-)-epicatechin) (13) 134
肆、 討論 (一) 136
伍、 材料與方法(二) 138
荔枝葉之相生相剋研究 138
一、 實驗材料與儀器 138
二、 實驗方法 138
(一)、 荔枝葉粉和土壤對大花咸豐草生長抑制分析及土壤性質分析 138
(二)、 土壤pH值測定 139
(三)、 荔枝土壤消毒滅菌之抑制活性實驗 139
(四)、 生物活性測定 (Standard sponge bioassay) 140
(五)、 土壤性質分析 140
陸、 結果(二) 141
一、 荔枝樹土壤分析 141
二、 荔枝土壤生物分析 141
三、 化合物活性測定和種子生物分析 143
柒、 討論(二) 145
捌、 結論 148
玖、 參考文獻 149


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