(3.236.6.6) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/23 22:49
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:洪嬿妮
研究生(外文):Yan-Ni Hung
論文名稱:比較中國肉桂與錫蘭肉桂精油成分以及其抗發炎、抗痤瘡桿菌與皮屑芽孢菌之能力
論文名稱(外文):Comparison between Cinnamon and Ceylon Cinnamon in the compositions, anti-inflammatory and anti- Propionibacterium acnes , anti- Pityrosporum ovale abilities of essential oils
指導教授:蔡玫琳
指導教授(外文):Mei-Lin Tsai
口試委員:林維炤施敏慧
口試委員(外文):Wei -Chao LinMin-Huei Shr
口試日期:2013-07-01
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:嘉南藥理科技大學
系所名稱:化粧品應用與管理系暨化粧品科技研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:美容學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:肉桂抗發炎抗菌THP-1
外文關鍵詞:Cinnamonanti-microbialanti-inflammtoryTHP-1
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:1724
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:81
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
青春痘與頭皮屑主要是由痤瘡桿菌與皮屑芽孢菌造成,這兩種菌都與人體共存,一旦人體皮脂分泌過多,其大量增生,會釋放化學趨化物質引起發炎反應。本研究因此藉由對中國肉桂(Cinnamomum cassia)與錫蘭肉桂(Cinnamomum verum)精油進行成分分析,並測定其抗發炎及抗痤瘡桿菌及皮屑芽孢菌能力,來評估這兩種精油能否應用在改善青春痘以及頭皮屑所造成的病症上。
結果顯示,中國肉桂精油主成分為Cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid(57.01%)、cinnamaldehyde(28.13%),全成分中以羧酸類及醛類最多;錫蘭肉桂精油主成分為eugenol(63.21%)、isoeugenol(5.11%)、β-caryophyllene(4.86%),全成分中以酚類與萜烯類最多。
抗菌活性以抗生素四環素作為實驗對照組,比較精油與四環素對 P.acnes之最小抑菌濃度(MIC90),以中國肉桂精油優於錫蘭肉桂精油;比較精油與四環素對P.ovale之MIC90,以錫蘭肉桂精油優於中國肉桂精油;在抗P.acnes與P.ovale兩種肉桂精油的效果皆優於四環素。
抗發炎能力評估,錫蘭肉桂精油對NO自由基清除力優於中國肉桂精油;而在5-LOX抑制效果上,則是中國肉桂優於錫蘭肉桂精油。在抑制THP-1細胞分泌促炎細胞激素,針對P.acnes菌體刺激產生TNF-α,錫蘭肉桂抑制能力優於中國肉桂,尤其錫蘭肉桂表現更優於α-Bisobolol;抑制IL-1β產生,呈現相反現象,為中國肉桂抑制能力優於錫蘭肉桂。針對P.ovale菌體刺激產生TNF-α,錫蘭肉桂抑制能力優於中國肉桂;在抑制IL-1β產生,兩種精油呈現相似結果。

Acne vulgaris and dandruff are mainly caused by the Propionibacterium acnes and Pityrosporum ovale .Two kinds of microorganisms are part of the skin flora. Once the excessive secretion of sebum, both microbial a will proliferated, and release chemotactic substances, causing inflammation.
The study, analysed the chemical compositions of essential oils of Cinnamon and Ceylon cinnamon, and determined its anti-inflammatory and anti-P.acnes, anti-P.ovale abilities to assess the potentials of these two essential oils in improving acne vulgaris and dandruff.
The results showed that the main compositions of Cinnamon essential oil are Cis-2-methoxycinnamic acis(57.01%), cinnamaldehyde(28.13%).There are high proportional acids and aldehydes in Cinnamon essential oil. The main compositions of Ceylon cinnamon essential oil are eugenol(63.21%), isoeugenol(5.11%)and β-caryophyllene(4.86%).There are high proportional phenols and terpenes in Ceylon Cinnamon essential oil.
In the anti-microbial evaluation, Cinnamon essential oil showed better anti-P.acnes ability than the Ceylon Cinnamon essential oil. Ceylon Cinnamon essential oil revealed better anti-P.ovale ablity than the Cinnamon essential oil. In addition, both Ceylon Cinnamon and Cinnamon essential oils had better anti-microbial abilities than tetracycline.
To assess anti-inflammatory activities, Ceylon Cinnamon essential oil showed better NO redical scavenging than Cinnamon essential oil; Cinnamon essential oil had better 5-LOX inhibition than Ceylon Cinnamon essential oil.
In the inhibiting secretions of TNF-α and IL-1β from THP-1 cell line irritated by P.acnes and P.ovale , Ceylon Cinnamon essential oil revealed better inhibition rates of TNF-α and IL-1β than Cinnamon essential oil.

摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
目錄 1
圖目錄 4
表目錄 6
縮寫表 7
第一章、 前言 8
第二章、 文獻回顧 11
2-1 精油簡介 11
2-1-1 精油的來源 11
2-1-2 植物內精油的分佈 12
2-1-3 植物精油的化學組成 13
2-1-4 影響精油組成及成分含量的因素 16
2-1-5 精油萃取方法 17
2-1-6 精油成分之抗菌活性及原理 18
2-1-7 精油之抗發炎活性 20
2-1-8 精油之應用 21
2-2 實驗精油植物與標準品簡介 23
2-2-1 中國肉桂Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) 23
2-2-2 錫蘭肉桂Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) 25
2-2-3 順-2-甲氧基肉桂酸(Cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid) 27
2-2-4 肉桂醛(Cinnamaldehyde) 28
2-2-5 丁香酚(Eugenol) 29
2-2-6 異丁香酚(Isoeugenol) 30
2-2-7 β-石竹烯(β-caryophyllene) 31
2-3 實驗菌種與細胞株介紹 32
2-3-1 痤瘡桿菌(Propionibacterium acnes) 32
2-3-2 皮屑芽孢菌(Pityrosporum ovale) 33
2-3-2 人類單核球細胞株(THP-1 cell line) 34
第三章、 材料與設備 36
3-1 實驗材料 36
3-1-1 實驗精油來源 36
3-2 實驗藥品 36
3-2-1 細菌培養基 36
3-2-2 細胞培養 37
3-2-3 藥品 37
3-2-4 標準品 38
3-3 菌種與細胞株 38
3-4 儀器設備 38
第四章、 實驗方法 40
4-1 細菌培養基配製與保存 40
4-1-1 液態及固態培養基配製 40
4-1-2 菌株活化與保存 40
4-2 THP-1細胞之培養與保存 41
4-2-1 THP-1細胞培養液 41
4-2-2 THP-1細胞之培養 42
4-2-3 細胞冷凍保存 42
4-3 細胞使用藥品及刺激物配製 42
4-4 精油成分分析 44
4-5 抗菌活性試驗 44
4-6 抗發炎活性試驗 45
4-6-1 Nitric oxide(NO)自由基清除能力測定 45
4-6-2 5-脂氧合酶(5-lipoxygenase;5-LOX)抑制能力 46
4-6-3 細胞存活率測定(MTT assay) 48
4-6-4 THP-1細胞分泌TNF-α及IL-1β測試 48
4-7 統計分析 49
第五章、結果與討論 50
5-1 精油成分分析 50
5-2 精油抑菌活性 68
5-2-1 對痤瘡桿菌(Propionibacterium acnes)之抑菌分析 68
5-2-2 對皮屑芽孢菌(Pityrosporum ovale)之抑菌分析 71
5-3 精油抗發炎活性測定 76
5-3-1 Nitric oxide(NO)自由基清除能力測定 76
5-3-2 5-脂氧合酶(5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX)抑制能力測定 80
5-3-3 THP-1細胞存活率(MTT) 87
5-3-4 TNF-α與IL-1β之標準品檢量線 88
5-3-5 精油及其主成分對THP-1分泌TNF-α與IL-1β之影響 89
5-3-6 以P.acnes菌體誘導THP-1分泌TNF-α與IL-1β之影響 92
5-3-7 以P. ovale菌體誘導THP-1分泌TNF-α與IL-1β之影響 97
第六章、結論 102
第七章、參考文獻 104
附錄一、中國肉桂與錫蘭肉桂成分含量與質量比 114

1.Haider A, Shaw JC. Treatment of acne vulgaris. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. 2004;292(6):726-735.
2.Stewart MJ, Parikh S, Xiao G, Tonge PJ, Kisker C. Structural basis and mechanism of enoyl reductase inhibition by triclosan. Journal of molecular biology. 1999;290(4):859-865.
3.Swanson JK. Antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes in acne vulgaris. Dermatology nursing/Dermatology Nurses' Association. 2003;15(4):359.
4.Gupta A, Kohli Y. In vitro susceptibility testing of ciclopirox, terbinafine, ketoconazole and itraconazole against dermatophytes and nondermatophytes, and in vitro evaluation of combination antifungal activity. British journal of dermatology. 2003;149(2):296-305.
5.Squiquera L, Plotkin L, Mathov I, Galimberti R, Leoni J. Analysis of the antifungal activity of ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione, and ciclopirox olamine against Pityrosporum ovale. A diffusion assay for cultures in solid media. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 1996;7(1):26-29.
6.Nathan CF. Secretory products of macrophages. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1987;79(2):319.
7.Cavanaugh Jr P, Meredith M, Buchanan W, Doyle M, Redd M, Jeffcoat M. Coordinate production of PGE, and IL‐1β in the gingival crevicular fluid of adults with periodontitis: its relationship to alveolar bone loss and disruption by twice daily treatment with ketorolac tromethamine oral rinse. Journal of periodontal research. 1998;33(2):75-82.
8.Werner M, Braunschewig Rv. 芳香療法實證學. 社團法人德芳亞太研究發展協會; 2006.
9.Ryman D. 芳香精油治療百科. 世茂出版社; 1999.
10.Davis P. 芳香療法大百科. 世茂出版社; 2000.
11.易光輝, 王曉芬, 李依蒨. 精油之化學基礎與實務應用. 華杏出版股份有限公司; 2011.
12.廖志中, 黃照元. 精油與抗氧化作用. 林業研究專訊. 2008;15(3):19-26.
13.蘇裕昌, 何振隆. 精油的化學. 林業研究專訊. 2008;15(3).
14.歐明秋, 游銅錫, 林麗雲. 精油化學. 華杏出版股份有限公司; 2009.
15.王振瀾, 尹華文. 栽培地區及生長季節對土肉桂葉精油含量成分之影響. 林業試驗所研究報告季刊. 1991;6(3):313-328.
16.喻學儉, 丁靖凱, 程必强, 孫漢董. 雲南省不同產地不同部位的中國肉桂精油成分分析. 香料香精化妆品. 1988;3:002.
17.潘懷宗, 劉晉魁, 周良穎, 謝秉甫, 李沐勳. 利用超臨界二氧化碳萃取肉桂中之精油成份: 並與水蒸氣蒸餾法進行比較. 中醫藥雜誌. 1994;5(3):199-207.
18.Turek C, Stintzing FC. Impact of different storage conditions on the quality of selected essential oils. Food Research International. 2012;46(1):341-353.
19.Clarke S. Essential chemistry for safe aromatherapy. Churchill Livingstone; 2002.
20.Reverchon E. Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 1997;10(1):1-37.
21.張如瑩. 比較月桃不同萃取法所得萃取物之抗氧化、抗發炎與抗菌活性. 台南市, 嘉南藥理科技大學化粧品科技研究所; 2011.
22.Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F. The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology. 2007;73(1):22.
23.Didry N, Dubreuil L, Pinkas M. Activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on oral bacteria. Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae. 1994;69(1):25-28.
24.Newman MG, Hulem C, Colgate J, Anselmo C. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria. Journal of dental research. 1979;58(7):1722-1732.
25.Kamatou GP, Viljoen AM. A review of the application and pharmacological properties of α-bisabolol and α-bisabolol-rich oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 2010;87(1):1-7.
26.Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils–A review. Food and chemical toxicology. 2008;46(2):446-475.
27.Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology. 2004;94(3):223-253.
28.Mendoza L, Wilkens M, Urzua A. Antimicrobial study of the resinous exudates and of diterpenoids and flavonoids isolated from some Chilean Pseudognaphalium(Asteraceae). Journal of ethnopharmacology. 1997;58(2):85-88.
29.Reichling J, Suschke U, Schneele J, Geiss H. Antibacterial activity and irritation potential of selected essential oil components–structure-activity relationship. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2006;1:1003-1012.
30.Knobloch K, Pauli A, Iberl B, Weigand H, Weis N. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 1989;1(3):119-128.
31.Kalemba D, Kunicka A. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2003;10(10):813-829.
32.Parham P, Janeway CA. The immune system. Garland Science New York; 2005.
33.Tracey KJ, Cerami A. Tumor necrosis factor, other cytokines and disease. Annual review of cell biology. 1993;9(1):317-343.
34.梁佳玟, 賴怡君, 朱燕華. 中草藥對於促發炎細胞激素生成之影響. J. Chin. Med. 2004;15(4):293-304.
35.Ocaña-Fuentes A, Arranz-Gutierrez E, Senorans F, Reglero G. Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano ( Origanum vulgare) essentials oils: Anti-inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on THP-1 macrophages. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48(6):1568-1575.
36.Juergens U, Stöber M, Schmidt-Schilling L, Kleuver T, Vetter H. Antiinflammatory effects of euclyptol (1.8-cineole) in bronchial asthma: inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood monocytes ex vivo. European journal of medical research. 1998;3(9):407.
37.Chou S-T, Lai C-P, Lin C-C, Shih Y. Study of the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil from Vetiveria zizanioides. Food Chemistry. 2012.
38.Grassmann J, Hippeli S, Dornisch K, Rohnert U, Beuscher N, Elstner E. Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oils. Possible explanations for their anti-inflammatory effects. Arzneimittel forschung. 2000;50(2):135-139.
39.李時珍/原著, 臧俊岐/審訂. 圖解本草綱目:五行食療治百病. 華威文化; 2011.
40.Li Y-q, Kong D-x, Wu H. Analysis and evaluation of essential oil components of cinnamon barks using GC–MS and FTIR spectroscopy. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013;41:269-278.
41.吳普, 孫星衍, 孫逢翼. 神農本草經. 人民衛生出版社; 1963.
42.陳軒, 汪昂. 新解本草備要. 晨光出版社; 1984.
43.Ooi LS, Li Y, Kam S-L, Wang H, Wong EY, Ooi VE. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume. The American journal of Chinese medicine. 2006;34(03):511-522.
44.呂福原, 歐辰雄. 台灣樹木解說(一). 行政院農業委員會; 1998.
45.Kaul PN, Bhattacharya AK, Rajeswara Rao BR, Syamasundar KV, Ramesh S. Volatile constituents of essential oils isolated from different parts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2002;83(1):53-55.
46.Wang R, Wang R, Yang B. Extraction of essential oils from five cinnamon leaves and identification of their volatile compound compositions. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 2009;10(2):289-292.
47.Prabuseenivasan S, Jayakumar M, Ignacimuthu S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006;6(1):39.
48.Shi Y, Chen Q-X, Wang Q, Song K-K, Qiu L. Inhibitory effects of cinnamic acid and its derivatives on the diphenolase activity of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase. Food chemistry. 2005;92(4):707-712.
49.張春樂, 宋康康, 陳祥仁, 張麗娟, 林敏, 陳清西. 肉桂酸及其衍生物的抑菌活性研究. 廈門大學學報:自然科學版. 2006;45(B05):16-18.
50.戚剛剛. 桂皮醛治療牙周炎的動物實驗研究, 四川大學碩士學位論文; 2006.
51.李京晶, 籍保平, 周峰, 李博. 丁香和肉桂揮發油的提取, 主要成分測定及其抗菌活性研究. 食品科學. 2006;27(8):64-68.
52.Gill AO, Holley RA. Mechanisms of bactericidal action of cinnamaldehyde against Listeria monocytogenes and of eugenol against L. monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2004;70(10):5750-5755.
53.Shreaz S, Maurya IK, Bhatia R, et al. Influences of cinnamic aldehydes on plasma membrane H+ ATPase activity and ultrastructure of Candida. Journal of medical microbiology. 2011.
54.Feng J, Lipton J. Eugenol: Antipyretic activity in rabbits. Neuropharmacology. 1987;26(12):1775-1778.
55.彭宅彪, 張瓊光, 代虹健, 丁英平. 丁香酚的藥理學研究進展. 時珍國醫國藥. 2006;17(10):2079-2081.
56.邱電, 張魁華, 方炳虎. 丁香酚的藥理作用. 動物醫學進展. 2007;28(8):101-103.
57.譚廷華, 何西利. 丁香酚對氧自由基的清除作用. 西北藥學雜誌. 1996;11(1):30-31.
58.Choi CY, Park K-R, Lee J-H, et al. Isoeugenol suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is mediated by down-regulation of NF-κB, ERK1/2, and p38 kinase. European journal of pharmacology. 2007;576(1):151-159.
59.Rajakumar D, Rao M. Dehydrozingerone and isoeugenol as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and as free radical scavengers. Biochemical pharmacology. 1993;46(11):2067-2072.
60.劉曉宇, 陳旭冰, 陳光勇. β-石竹烯及其衍生物的生物活性與合成研究進展. 林產化學與工業. 2012;32(1):104-110.
61.Fernandes ES, Passos GF, Medeiros R, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea. European journal of pharmacology. 2007;569(3):228.
62.食品工業發展研究所著. 細菌目錄. 新竹市2000.
63.Stehr F, Kretschmar M, Kröger C, Hube B, Schäfer W. Microbial lipases as virulence factors. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. 2003;22(5):347-355.
64.食品工業發展研究所著. 真菌目錄 : 酵母菌、絲狀真菌、菇類. 新竹市2000.
65.Diaz IAC, Civila E, Veiga R. The importance of microscopic examination in the management of desquamative diseases of the scalp. Mycopathologia. 2002;153(2):71-75.
66.Harding C, Moore A, Rogers J, Meldrum H, Scott A, McGlone F. Dandruff: a condition characterized by decreased levels of intercellular lipids in scalp stratum corneum and impaired barrier function. Archives of dermatological research. 2002;294(5):221-230.
67.Krishnamoorthy J, Ranganathan S, Shankar SG, Ranjith M. Dano: A herbal solution for dandruff. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(10).
68.Porter RM. Mouse models for human hair loss disorders. Journal of anatomy. 2003;202(1):125-131.
69.財團法人食品工業發展研究所. 細胞株目錄. 新竹市2002.
70.Vowels BR, Yang S, Leyden JJ. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a soluble factor of Propionibacterium acnes: implications for chronic inflammatory acne. Infection and immunity. 1995;63(8):3158-3165.
71.Faergemann J, Bergbrant IM, Dohse M, Scott A, Westgate G. Seborrhoeic dermatitis and Pityrosporum (Malassezia) folliculitis: characterization of inflammatory cells and mediators in the skin by immunohistochemistry. British Journal of Dermatology. 2001;144(3):549-556.
72.Ashkenazi H, Malik Z, Harth Y, Nitzan Y. Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes by its endogenic porphyrins after illumination with high intensity blue light. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 2006;35(1):17-24.
73.蔡孟秀. 五種芳香植物精油於抗菌、抗氧化及抗發炎之活性評估. 台南市, 嘉南藥理科技大學化粧品科技研究所; 2009.
74.張文雅. 精油之抑制皮屑芽孢菌與抗發炎活性評估. 台南市, 嘉南藥理科技大學化粧品科技研究所; 2007.
75.Yu J, Lei J, Yu H, Cai X, Zou G. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Scutellaria barbata. Phytochemistry. 2004;65(7):881-884.
76.趙國評, 莊朝欽. 精油之抗發炎活性. 林業研究專訊. 2008;15(3):27-30.
77.Hong BE, Fujimura Y, Yamada K, Tachibana H. Anti-Inflammatory Action of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate at a Physiological Concentration through the 67-KDA Laminin Receptor in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Raw264. 7 Cells. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. 2010:139-144.
78.Ignarro LJ. Nitric oxide: biology and pathobiology. Academic Press; 2000.
79.Sumanont Y, Murakami Y, Tohda M, Vajragupta O, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H. Evaluation of the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity of manganese complexes of curcumin and its derivative. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2004;27(2):170-173.
80.Lin H-H. Influence of Some Common Chinese Herbs on Culturing Dietary Lactic Acid Bacteria. 2007.
81.Chiu C-L, Hsu J-C. Lipoxygenase Inhibition and Anti-Inflammatory Effect. Graduate Institute of Cosmetic Science, Hungkuang University. 2008;55(3):165-177.
82.Baylac S, Racine P. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by essential oils and other natural fragrant extracts. International Journal of Aromatherapy. 2003;13(2):138-142.
83.Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of immunological methods. 1983;65(1):55-63.
84.張文倫. 肉桂精油對酪胺酸酶活性與黑色素生成之影響. 台中市: 化粧品科學系, 靜宜大學; 2012.
85.Lv GP, Huang WH, Yang FQ, Li J, Li SP. Pressurized liquid extraction and GC‐MS analysis for simultaneous determination of seven components in Cinnamomum cassia and the effect of sample preparation. Journal of separation science. 2010;33(15):2341-2348.
86.Geng S, Cui Z, Huang X, Chen Y, Xu D, Xiong P. Variations in essential oil yield and composition during Cinnamomum cassia bark growth. Industrial Crops and Products. 2011;33(1):248-252.
87.Samarasekera R, Kalhari KS, Weerasinghe IS. Mosquitocidal activity of leaf and bark essential oils of Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2005;17(3):301-303.
88.Senanayake UM, Lee TH, Wills RB. Volatile constituents of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1978;26(4):822-824.
89.謝瑞忠. 二氧化碳超臨界流體方法抽取錫蘭肉桂葉香精研究. 臺灣林業科學. 1997;12(1):71-79.
90.Koeduka T, Fridman E, Gang DR, et al. Eugenol and isoeugenol, characteristic aromatic constituents of spices, are biosynthesized via reduction of a coniferyl alcohol ester. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2006;103(26):10128-10133.
91.Ralph J, Hatfield RD. Pyrolysis-GC-MS characterization of forage materials. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1991;39(8):1426-1437.
92.Schmidt E, Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, et al. Composition and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) leaves from Sri Lanka. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2006;9(2):170-182.
93.Raina V, Srivastava S, Aggarwal K, Ramesh S, Kumar S. Essential oil composition of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume leaves from Little Andaman, India. Flavour and fragrance journal. 2001;16(5):374-376.
94.廖韋凱, 林家伃, 黃文濤, 施科念. 中草藥對免疫系統的生物效應. 加馬. 2009(40):60-65.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔