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研究生:邱文君
研究生(外文):Wen-Jyun Chiu
論文名稱:朝向個人最佳自尊:正向一致的內外自尊對心理幸福感的影響
論文名稱(外文):Toward to Optimal Self-Esteem: The Effect of Psychological Well-being with Consistency Between Positive Implicit Self-Esteem and Explicit Self-Esteem
指導教授:李怡真李怡真引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Chen Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:心理幸福感自尊一致性最佳自尊
外文關鍵詞:optimal self-esteempsychological well-beingexplicit self-esteemconsistencyimplicit self-esteem
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過去研究者對高自尊者所作的描述,是指擁有正向、良好的自我感覺且能展現真實的自我,這樣的個體具有穩固、安全感及廣泛的心理幸福感,但也有研究顯示,高自尊與自私、自戀和自我防衛有關,這樣的個體通常也會伴隨著較低的內隱自尊,這顯示內隱與外顯兩種自尊型態對個體的適應均有重要的影響性。根據最佳化自尊(optimal self-esteem)理論,當人們擁有內隱與外顯皆正向的自我評價時可以伴隨著最佳的適應;然而,過去卻未曾有研究以心理幸福感作為適應指標檢驗此一可能性。本研究的焦點即在藉由檢視內隱、外顯自尊與心理幸福感之間的關係,探索內外自尊正向一致的個體與最佳化的自尊之間的關聯性。在研究工具上,本研究採用自尊量表以及內隱關聯測驗測量參與者的外顯與內隱自尊,在心理幸福感的測量上,採用心理幸福感量表以及短版心理健康量表作為測量工具。研究結果發現,參與者的外顯自尊與兩種心理幸福感指標之間具有正相關,內隱自尊為無相關,此外兩種自尊在部分心理幸福感指標的面向上具則有顯著的交互作用,主要展現在心理幸福感量表的「人生的目標」面向以及短版心理健康量表的「心理性」面向上,意即當個體具有較高的內隱與外顯自尊組合時,確實能夠在人生目標的面向上伴隨著較佳的心理幸福感,此結果支持最佳自尊理論之中,個體內外自尊一致性對於其適應的重要性,亦提供未來相關研究之參考實證依據。
Regarding to the theory of optimal self-esteem ( Kernis, 2003), secure high self-esteem reflects the relative absence of hidden or nonconscious negativity, contingencies, or instability. People who has high explicit self-esteem that is accompanied by positive implicit self-esteem is secure. We examined the extent to which explicit self-esteem (ESE) and implicit self-esteem (ISE) predicted scores on Ryff’s(1989) multidimensional measure of psychological well-being(PWB) and Keyes’s(2009) Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MFC-SF). Main effects for ESE level emerged on all dimensions of the two scales, indicating that high ESE was associated with greater psychological well-being than low self-esteem. Besides, there is no main effects for ISE emerged on all of dimensions of the two scales. Finally, ISE and ESE interactions revealed for purpose in life subscales of PWB and psychological subscales of MFC-SF indicating more complex relationships between ESE, ISE and these aspects of well-being. Theoretical implications of the consistency between explicit/implication self-esteem and positive psychological functioning are discussed.
目錄
摘 要 I
第一章 研究動機與目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 最佳自尊與其核心概念 4
一、 安全高自尊與脆弱高自尊 4
二、 最佳自尊核心概念-真實性 8
第二節 內隱與外顯一致的最佳自尊 10
一、 內隱自尊及外顯自尊 10
二、 內隱與外顯自尊的一致性與最佳自尊 13
第三節 心理幸福感 17
一、 主觀幸福感與心理幸福感 17
二、 心理幸福感概念 18
三、 最佳自尊與心理幸福感 24
第四節 研究問題與假設 27
第三章 研究方法 29
第一節 研究對象 29
第二節 研究工具 29
第四章 研究結果 38
第一節 樣本之描述統計分析 38
第二節 信度與相關分析 40
第三節 內隱外顯自尊的交互作用分析 44
第五章 討論 53
第一節 研究結果與貢獻 53
第二節 研究限制與建議 56
參考文獻 58
附 件 65
(附件一) 自尊量表 65
(附件二) 心理幸福感量表 66
(附件三) 短版心理健康連續量表 70
(附件四) 真實性量表 71
(附件五) 內隱關聯測驗各程序說明 74

圖目錄
圖1-1 最佳自尊的核心概念-真實性包含四個部份 9
圖1-2 心理幸福感的六大核心特質與其他理論間的關聯(Ryff, 1995) 20
圖2-1 內隱外顯自尊與心理幸福感的研究架構圖 28
圖3-1.自尊組合在心理幸福感有人生目標面向上的交互作用 51
圖3-2.自尊組合在短版心理健康量表的心理性面向上的交互作用 52

表目錄
表1-1 安全高自尊和脆弱高自尊的差別 7
表1-2 心理幸福感與心盛量表之間的差異 22
表2-1 心理幸福感各面向的得分定義 31
表2-2 自我、非我相關詞彙 34
表2-3 IAT實驗程序 35
表3-1 樣本之描述統計表 38
表3-2 性別在各研究變項的差異分析 40
表3-3 信度和相關分析表 41
表3-4 心理幸福感量表、短版心理健康連續量表與真實性量表各變項之信度和內在相關分析表 43
表3-5內隱外顯自尊組合之細格人數 44
(以三分位數分組) 44
表3-6 二因子變異數分析摘要表 45
表3-7不同程度之外顯自尊的平均數比較表 47
表3-8 自尊組合在心理幸福感人生目標與短版心理健康量表心理性面向上的分數 50
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