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研究生:謝岳書
研究生(外文):Yueh-Shu Hsieh
論文名稱:大氣細懸浮微粒金屬成份特徵及來源貢獻分析研究
論文名稱(外文):Charaterisics of Metal Compositions and Source Contributions of Atmospheric Fine Particulate
指導教授:楊錫賢楊錫賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsi-Hsien Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:163
中文關鍵詞:化學質量平衡法主成份分析加強因子分析法金屬元素懸浮微粒
外文關鍵詞:PM2.5Principal Component Analysis (PCA)metal compositionsChemical Mass Balance (CMB)Enrichment Factor (EF)
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本研究於2011年7月至2012年6月解析北部地區不同季節大氣及特定對象細懸浮微粒 (PM2.5) 質量濃度。將採集之樣品進行金屬元素分析,並應用加強因子法分析微粒組成與污染源的相關性,之後使用主成份分析對PM2.5污染源作定性分析,瞭解懸浮微粒之可能污染源,最後以化學質量平衡法作定量分析,推估各地區對受體點污染源貢獻量。
本研究於2011年至2012年期間監測北部地區季節性大氣PM2.5及特定區域質量濃度。研究結果顯示,四縣市同步採樣於冬、春季期間測得之懸浮微粒質量濃度高於夏季與秋季期間;污染物傳遞採樣若受到上下風傳遞關係,則導致導致PM2.5濃度有遞增情形產生;工業區採樣平日測得之PM2.5濃度平均值大多高於假日;柴油車較多之臺北港及轉運站採樣結果顯示,日間PM2.5濃度高出夜間1.24 ~ 1.69倍;公車專用道採樣中,假日PM2.5濃度最高時段為上午,而中午次高,PM2.5濃度最低為下午,平日則與假日相反,下午測得PM2.5濃度最高,其次為中午,上午則為最低,其測值上午、中午與下午三個時段互有高低,並無一定趨勢;由交通密集道路PM2.5採樣結果得知,平日上午、中午及下午為假日之2.83、1.92及1.40倍,顯示民眾於平日暴露PM2.5濃度較假日高。此外,本研究在化學組成方面,大氣微粒中之金屬元素以Al、Ca、Fe、K、Mg與Na所含濃度最高為主要金屬元素;工業區金屬以Cu、Mn、Pb及Zn元素較一般大氣高;柴油車密集區測得之金屬元素以Al、Ca、Cr、Cu、Fe及Ni較大氣高出許多;隧道/地下道、地下停車場中,較一般大氣含量高之金屬元素為Cr、Cu、Fe、Mn及Zn。在應用加強因子分析法分析結果顯示,金屬元素Cu、K、Na、Ni、Pb來自非土壤之其他來源;應用主成份分析法進行大氣四縣市同步採樣的分析,結果共分為四個因子,因子1至因子4分別定義為混合污染源、海水飛沫、重油燃燒貢獻及地殼來源;應用化學質量平衡法模式解析北部地區季節性PM2.5貢獻污染源,綜觀北部地區季節性PM2.5貢獻污染源以硫酸鹽貢獻量最大,其次為機動車輛,而後為烹飪。
In this study, the atmospheric fine particulate (PM2.5) in different seasons were collected from July, 2011 to June, 2012 in Northern Taiwan. The metal elements were also analyzed. Enrichment (EF), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) were applied to estimate the contribution of emission sources for the receptor sites. The results show that the PM2.5 mass concentration in winter and spring are higher than summer and autumn. PM2.5 concentrations are higher for the samplers at the right downwind than the upwind sitesof the industrial plants. PM2.5 concentrations measured on weekdays at industrial areas are mostly higher than those on holidays. The Port of Taipei and bus station have more diesel cars. PM2.5 concentration at the two sites in daytime is 1.24 ~ 1.69 times higher than in nighttime. For bus-only lane sampling, the PM2.5 concentration is highest in the morning for holidays, PM2.5 concentration is lowest in the afternoon. For weekdays, PM2.5 concentration is highest in the afternoon and lowest in the morning. PM2.5 concentrations for heavy traffic road at morning, noon and afternoon time in weekdays are 2.83, 1.92 and 1.40 times higher than holidays, it indicates that people might be exposed to higher PM2.5 concentration in weekdays than inholidays. The compositions of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na are high in the atmospheric PM2.5, as the metals Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn are higher at the industrial sites. Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni are much higher at the sites with more diesel vehicles. For the sties of tunnel/underground and underground parking lot, the metals Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn are siginificantly higher. The result of Enrichment Factor analysis reveals that the metal compositions Cu, K, Na, Ni and Pb are from non-soil sources. Principal Component Analysis results show that there are four factors. Factor 1 to factor 4 are defined as mixed pollution source, sea-salt, heavy oil burning contribution and crustal source, respectively. Chemical Mass Balance results show that secondary sulfate is the major contribution source, followed by motor vehicle and cooking.
總目錄

中文摘要 I
Abstract III
總目錄 V
表目錄 IX
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究內容與目標 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 懸浮微粒 4
2-1-1 懸浮微粒之定義 4
2-1-2 懸浮微粒對人體的危害 4
2-1-3 懸浮微粒之來源 7
2-2 懸浮微粒之季節性質量濃度變化 8
2-3 不同特性環境PM2.5量測 10
2-3-1 隧道、地下道及地下停車場 10
2-3-2 交通密集區域 13
2-4 大氣懸浮微中金屬成份來源與特性 17
2-5 來源分析 20
2-5-1 加強因子分析法 20
2-5-2 主成份分析 22
2-5-3 受體模式 23
第三章 實驗設備與方法 29
3-1懸浮微粒採樣 29
3-1-1採樣位置之選定 31
3-1-2採樣時間 37
3-1-3採樣設備 38
3-1-4質量濃度計算方式 40
3-1-5 採樣濾紙與前處理 40
3-2 金屬成份分析方法 41
3-3 來源分析 43
3-3-1 加強因子分析法 44
3-3-2 主成份分析 45
3-3-3 化學質量平衡法 49
第四章 結果與討論 56
4-1 北部空品區不同環境懸浮微粒質量濃度 56
4-1-1 大氣環境 56
4-1-1-1 四縣市同步 56
4-1-1-2 污染物傳遞 58
4-1-2 特定對象 63
4-1-2-1 工業區 63
4-1-2-2 柴油車密集區 69
4-1-2-3 半密閉空間 72
4-1-3 交通密集區 75
4-1-3-1 公車專用道 75
4-1-3-2 交通密集道路 77
4-2 北部空品區不同環境懸浮微粒金屬成份組成份析 81
4-2-1 大氣環境 81
4-2-1-1 四縣市同步 81
4-2-1-2 污染物傳遞 84
4-2-2 特定對象 85
4-2-2-1 工業區 85
4-2-2-2 柴油車密集區 88
4-2-2-3 半密閉空間 92
4-2-3 交通密集區 95
4-2-3-1 公車專用道 95
4-2-3-2 交通密集道路 96
4-3 PM2.5及來源分析 99
4-3-1 重建質量濃度 99
4-3-2 加強因子分析法 105
4-3-3 主成份分析 107
4-3-4 化學質量平衡法 109
第五章 結論 121
參考文獻 125
附錄 品質保證與品質控制 143

表目錄
表2-1 隧道及停車場PM2.5曝露之相關文獻整理 (mg/m3) 16
表2-2 郊區及交通路口PM2.5曝露之相關文獻整理 (mg/m3) 19
表3-1 粒狀物空氣監測採樣規劃表 26
表4-1 各成份佔PM2.5中之比例文獻整理文獻整理 97
表4-2 重建氣膠質量濃度的元素組成與轉換因子 100
表4-3 質量重建後PM2.5之比例文獻整理 101
表4-4 北部空品區內土壤金屬元素含量檢測值 (mg/kg) 103
表4-5 大氣PM2.5金屬成份之主成份分析因子負荷 105
表4-6 四縣市同步第一季100年9月5日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 110
表4-7 四縣市同步第一季100年9月6日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 111
表4-8 四縣市同步第二季100年11月15日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 112
表4-9 四縣市同步第二季100年11月16日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 113
表4-10 四縣市同步第三季101年1月10日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 114
表4-11 四縣市同步第三季101年1月11日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 115
表4-12 四縣市同步第四季101年4月23日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 116
表4-13 四縣市同步第四季101年4月24日各採樣點PM2.5受體模式分析結果 117

圖目錄
圖3-1 四縣市同步採樣位置圖 26
圖3-2 污染物傳遞採樣位置圖 27
圖3-3 土城工業區位置圖 28
圖3-4 龜山工業區位置圖 28
圖3-5 各轉運站位置圖 29
圖3-6 隧道、地下道、停車場位置圖 30
圖3-7 公車專用道採樣點位置圖 31
圖3-8 公車專用道採樣點位置圖 32
圖3-9 TE-6070D高流量採樣器外觀 34
圖3-10 PM10衝擊式採樣頭 34
圖3-11 分粒 (2.5-10與2.5 mm) 衝擊板 34
圖3-12 PM2.5濾紙底板 34
圖3-13 感應耦合電漿光學放射光譜儀 37
圖3-14 金屬元素分析流程 38
圖3-15 CMB 8.2模式操作步驟 50
圖4-1 四縣市同步PM2.5檢測結果 53
圖4-2 污染物傳遞PM2.5檢測結果 54
圖4-3 第一季污染物傳遞100年9月13日風向 55
圖4-4 第一季污染物傳遞100年9月14日風向 56
圖4-5 第一季污染物傳遞100年9月15日風向 56
圖4-6 第二季污染物傳遞101年4月16日風向 57
圖4-7 第二季污染物傳遞101年4月17日風向 57
圖4-8 土城工業區採樣點位置圖 59
圖4-9 土城工業區PM2.5檢測結果 59
圖4-10 土城工業區採樣期間風向分析圖 60
圖4-11 龜山工業區採樣點位置圖 62
圖4-12 龜山工業區PM2.5檢測結果 62
圖4-13 龜山工業區採樣期間風向分析圖 63
圖4-14 各季臺北港PM2.5檢測結果 64
圖4-15 第一季轉運站PM2.5檢測結果 66
圖4-16 第二季轉運站PM2.5檢測結果 67
圖4-17 地下道PM2.5檢測結果 68
圖4-18 板橋地下停車場PM2.5檢測結果 69
圖4-19 公車專用道PM2.5檢測結果 71
圖4-20 第一季交通密集道路PM2.5檢測結果 73
圖4-21 採樣期間車流量 74
圖4-22 平日PM2.5濃度與車流量比較圖 75
圖4-23 假日PM2.5濃度與車流量比較圖 75
圖4-24 四縣市同步PM2.5金屬濃度 78
圖4-25 各季物傳遞PM2.5金屬濃度 79
圖4-26 各季工業區PM2.5金屬濃度 81
圖4-27 各季臺北港PM2.5金屬濃度 82
圖4-28 各季轉運站PM2.5金屬濃度 84
圖4-29 隧道/地下道PM2.5金屬濃度 86
圖4-30 板橋地下停車場PM2.5金屬濃度 87
圖4-31 公車專用道PM2.5金屬濃度 89
圖4-32 交通密集道路PM2.5金屬濃度 91
圖4-33 四季大氣PM2.5樣品之化學組成百分比 92
圖4-34 PM2.5以鋁為參考元素之加強因子分析結果 (參考文獻使用文獻土壤金屬測值) 99
圖4-35 PM2.5以鋁為參考元素之加強因子分析結果 (參考元素使用本研究北部土壤金屬測值) 101
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