跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.95.131.146) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 01:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李可為
研究生(外文):Lee,Kowei
論文名稱:丙烯醯胺等高水溶性有機化合物等速採樣方法之研究
論文名稱(外文):Reseach of the Isokinetic Sampling for High Solubility Chemicals , such as Acrylamide.
指導教授:劉希平劉希平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu,Shiping
口試委員:鄭福田張能復
口試日期:101.09.13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:高極性高水溶性煙道等速採樣
外文關鍵詞:strong polarityhigh solubilityisokinetic stack sampling
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:149
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
研究目的為建立丙烯醯胺(Acrylamide,AA)、己內醯胺( Caprolactam, CAP )、二甲基亞碸 ( Dimethyl Sulfoxide, DMSO )及二甲基甲醯胺 ( Dimethyl Formamide, DMF ) 等四種高水溶性有機化合物( 合併簡稱為 ACDD ) 之煙道採樣分析方法。採樣方法的建立先決定丙醯烯胺等四種有機 化合物的吸收液,而在進行煙道檢測過程中,採集氣態ACDD之同時,不能忽略與煙道內含有 ACDD 之水滴,必須以等速吸引採樣方式來進行。ACDD 分析與樣本保存主要是以 GC/FID進行分析探討。本研究於人工模擬煙道進行採樣實驗,以採樣管、前吸收瓶與後吸收瓶之比例比較等速、最大速率以及等速的 1/2 速率採樣速率。最後以不同產業之現場煙道檢測,以證此方法可行性。
在人工模擬煙道,進行三次重複性煙道採樣結果,等速率採樣速率時,採樣管約占 7.4 %,前吸收瓶約佔 90%,而後吸收瓶只有占 3.1% ,破出穿透率並未超過 5%;而最大速率採樣速率為 15 lpm 時,採樣管約占 1.4 %, 而後吸收瓶並有破出之情形;而等速的 1/2 速率採樣速率為 4 lpm 時,採樣管約占 52.0 % ,可能原因為由於採樣速率過小,導致採集樣本之氣體,在採樣管轉彎處或直線處沈降,導致此結果,因此等速採樣仍是採集煙道 ACDD 之建議方式。
ACDD 樣本收集是以乙醇作為吸收溶劑。ACDD 線性範圍在 5-1000 ppm。檢測 極限方面,在訊/雜比為 3 情形下,儀器偵測極限為 3 ppm GC/MS 之儀器檢測極限略高於 GC/FID 約為5 ppm。樣本保存期限則在真實煙道氣體樣本中同時添加 50 ug 於 7*1 mL 樣本中,每天分析其樣本中ACDD濃度,樣本在 4℃冷藏保存下之可保存長達 7 天, ACDD 在樣本中之衰退情形並不明顯,顯示本方法之可行性。 本研究之結果,欲進行排放管道之採樣時,須使用等速率吸引進行採 樣,否則可能會低估或者高估排放管道之真實濃度。
The purpose of this research are to establish a stack sampling and analysis method for high solubility and strong polarity chemicals such as acrylamide, caprolactam, dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl formamide (ACDD). The stack sampling and analysis method includes isokinetic sampling, sample collection and instrumental analysis. Through five different stack sampling events at various factories, the stack sampling and analysis method was tested and verified its
effectiveness.
Because of the high solubility and strong polarity of ACDD, most factories applied scrubbers to clean up their exhaust gas, then emit through stacks. Upon stack sampling, not only particulate (mostly water droplets) phase but also gaseous phase should be thoroughly collected. Therefore, isokinetic sampling requirement is essential for ACDD in both particulate and gaseous phases. However, the physical characteristics of emission stacks after scrubbers are not suitable with upper stream 8D/ down stream 2D (D is the stack diameter) requirement for isokinetic sampling. According to laboratory and real stack sampling tests, about 20-30% of ACDD remaining in the sampling tube suggested isokinetic sampling is required to minimize the inertial loss of large particles in the flue gas stream. Ethanol in two sequential impingers is used to absorb ACDD during sampling. The sampling flowrate of 10 lpm was recommended as the upper limit to avoid possible breakthrough, which is defined as 5% of the second impinge to the first one. Gas Chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) is used to analyze ACDD in this study. The method detection limits of ACDD varied from 5 ppm. Stored under refrigeration, ACDD can be preserved to seven days without significant deterioration.

表目錄................................................................................................5
圖目錄................................................................................................6
摘要.....................................................................................................8
Abstract.............................................................................................9
誌謝..................................................................................................10
第一章 前言 .................................................................................11
1-1 研究背景............................................................................................................11
1-2 研究目的............................................................................................................12
第二章 文獻回顧........................................................................13
2-1 丙烯醯胺(AA)、己內醯胺(CAP)、二甲基甲醯胺(DMF)以及二甲基亞碸(DMSO)之基本特性 ...................................13
2-2 丙烯醯胺(AA)、己內醯胺(CAP)、二甲基甲醯胺(DMF)以及二甲基亞碸(DMSO)之應用............................................15
2-2-1 丙烯醯胺 (Acrylamide,AA)之應用.........................................................15
2-2-2 己內醯胺(Caprolactam,CAP)之應用.........................................................15
2-2-3 二甲基甲醯胺(Dimethyl Formamide,DMF)之應用 ..........................15
2-2-4 二甲基亞碸(Dimethyl Sulfoxide,DMSO) 之應用 ................................16
2-3 丙烯醯胺(AA)、己內醯胺(CAP)、二甲基甲醯胺 (DMF)以及二甲基亞碸(DMSO)之毒理............................................17
2-3-1 丙烯醯胺 (Acrylamide,AA)之毒理........................................................17
2-3-2 己內醯胺(Caprolactam,CAP)之毒害.......................................................17
2-3-3 二甲基甲醯胺 (Dimethyl Formamide,DMF)之毒害 .................................17
2-3-4 二甲基亞碸 (Dimethyl Sulfoxide,DMSO)之毒害 ................................18
2-4 採樣方法............................................................................................................18
2-5 等速吸引採樣 ( isokinetic sampling ).....................................................19
第三章 研究方法與實驗設備 ................................................21
3-1 實驗規劃 ............................................................................................................21
3-2 採樣方法的建立..............................................................................................21
3-2-1 吸收液實驗方法..........................................................................................................21
3-2-2 吸收液的標準品材料.................................................................................................22
3-2-3 吸收液實驗之結果......................................................................................................22
3-2-4 採樣流程架構...............................................................................................................26
3-2-4-1 選擇採樣位置............................................................................................................27
3-2-4-2 測量煙道氣體組成 ..................................................................................................30
3-2-4-3 測量煙道水份含量 ..................................................................................................31
3-2-4-4 測量大氣壓力、煙道溫度....................................................................................34
3-2-4-5 測量煙道全壓、靜壓.............................................................................................35
3-2-5 實驗室人工模擬煙道.................................................................................................39
3-3 分析方法............................................................................................................44
3-3-1 ACDD之 GC/FID之分析條件...............................................................................44
3-3-2 ACDD 之濃度檢量線.................................................................................................47
3-3-3 ACDD之方法偵測極限..............................................................................................52
第四章 結果與討論..............................................................54
4-1 人工模擬煙道實驗測試................................................................................54
4-1-1 小水量之等速與非等速測試..................................................................................54
4-1-2 大水量之等速與非等速測試..................................................................................56
4-2 實廠煙道採樣...................................................................................................66
4-2-1 煙道實地採樣之測試目的.......................................................................................66
4-2-2 實場採樣 .........................................................................................................................67
4-2-2-1 A 廠 .............................................................................................................................67
4-2-2-2 B 廠 ..............................................................................................................................71
4-2-2-3 C 廠 ..............................................................................................................................74
4-2-2-4 D 廠 .............................................................................................................................78
4-2-2-5 E 廠 ..............................................................................................................................80
4-3-3 實場採樣討論...............................................................................................................82
第五章 結論與建議 .................................................................83
5-1 結論......................................................................................................................83
5-2 建議......................................................................................................................83
參考文獻 ....................................................................................................................84
Ahn J. S., Castle L., Clarke D. B., Lloyd A. S., Philo M. R., Speck D. R. (2002). Verification of the findings of acrylamide in heated foods. Food Additives and Contaminants Vol. 19, Is. 12, 1116-1124.

Becalski A., Lau B.P.-Y., Lewis D., Seaman S.W., Hayward S., Sahagian M., Ramesh M., Leclerc Y., (2004). Acrylamide in French fries: influence of free amino acids and sugars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, 3801–3806.

Bradley E. L., Speck D. R., Read W. A., Castle L. (2004). Method of test and survey of caprolactam migration into foods packaged in nylon-6. Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol. 21, No. 12 , 1179–1185.

Chang T. Y., Wang V. S., Lin S. Y., Yen H. Y., Lai J. S., and Liu C. S. (2010). Co-Exposure to Noise, N,N-Dimethylformamide, and Toluene on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Synthetic Leather Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 7, 14–22.

Fre ́de ́ric Mestdagh, Bruno De Meulenaer, Carlos Van Peteghem. (2007). Influence of oil degradation on the amounts of acrylamide generated in a model system and in French fries. Food Chemistry 100, 1153–1159.

Glindemann D., Novak J., Witherspoon J.(2006).Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Waste Residues and Municipal Waste Water Odor by Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) : the North-East WPCP Plant of Philadelphia. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 202-207.

IARC. (1994). Acrylamide. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

JECFA. (2005). In Proceedings of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives, 64th meeting, Rome, 7–17.
Summary and conclusions report. Available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/ esn/jecfa/ jecfa64_summary.pdf.

Kim C.T. , Hwang E.S. , Lee H. J. (2007). An improved LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of acrylamide in processed foods. Food Chemistry Vol. 101, 401–409.

Kiyoshi Aita , Hiroshi Irie, Yutaka Tanuma, Suzuko Toida, Yoshimichi Okuma, Shigeo Mori, Junji Shiga. (2005). Apoptosis in murine lymphoid organs following intraperitoneal administration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Experimental and Molecular Pathology Vol. 79, Is. 3, 265–271.

Luo J.C., Cheng T.J., Kuo H.W., Chang M.J.W. (2005). Abnormal liver function associated with occupational exposure to Dimethylformamide and Glutathione S-Transferase Polymorphisms. Biomarkers 10, 464-74.

Marcus V.J. Bomfim , Helena P.S. Zamith , Shirley M.P. Abrantes . (2011). Migration of 3-caprolactam residues in packaging intended for contact with fatty foods. Food Control 22 , 681-684.

Mestdagh F., Meulenaer B. D., Peteghem C. V. (2007). Influence of oil degradation on the amounts of acrylamide generated in a model system and in French fries.Food Chemistry 100, 1153–1159.

Mottram D. S., Wedzicha B. L., Dodson A. T. (2002). Food chemistry: Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 419, 448-449.

Mucci L. A., Dickman P. W., Steineck G., Adami H-O. & Augustsson K. I. (2003). Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder : Absence of an association in a population-based study in Sweden. British Journal of Cancer 88, 84 - 89.

Mucci L. A., Lindblad P., Steineck G., Adami H-O.(2004).Dietary acrylamide and risk of renal cell cancer.International Journal of Cancer Vol.109, Is 5, 774–776.

Muhammad Akram Randhawa. (2008). Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Inhibits the Germination of Candida albicans and the Arthrospores of Trichophyton mentagrophytes Jpn. J. Med. Mycol.Vol. 49, 125 - 128.

NIOSH Criteria Documents Criteria for a Recommended Standard Occupational Exposure to Acrylamide.(1976).

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition, Dimethyl Formamide. (2004).

Occupational Safety & Health Administration Sampling and Analytical Methods – Acrylamide .(Method No. 21). (1980).

Occupational Safety & Health Administration Sampling and Analytical Methods - Dimethyl sulfoxide(Method Not Validated). (2007).

Pham-Huu-Chanh, M.C. Azum-Gelade, Nguyen Van Bac, Nguyen Dat Xuong. (1973). Cardiovascular activity of N,N- dimethylformamide.Toxicology Vol. 1, Is. 2, 135–141.

Redlich C., Beckett W. S., Sparer J., Barwick K. W., Riely C. A., Miller H., Sigal S. L., Shalat S. L., and Cullen M. R. (1988). Liver disease associated with occupational exposure to the solvent dimethylformamide. Ann. Intern. Med. 108, 680-686.

Santos N.C., Figueira-Coelho J, Martins-Silva J, Saldanha C. (2003). Multidisciplinary utilization of dimethyl sulfoxide : pharmacological, cellular, and molecular aspects. Biochem Pharmacol 65,1035-1041.

Sarantópoulos, C. I. G. L., Oliveira, L. M., Padula, M., Coltro, L., Alves, R. M. V., & Garcia, E. E. C. (2002). Embalagens Plásticas Flexíveis: Principais polímeros e avaliação de propriedades. Campinas: Centro de Tecnologia de embalagem (CETEA)/Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL).

Shayne C. Gad., Keith Robinson, Serota D. G., Colpean B. R.(1987).Developmental toxicity studies of caprolactam in the rat and rabbit. Journal of Applied Toxicology Vol. 7, Is. 5, 317–326.


Leroy Young, C.B. Boswell, Robert F. Centeno, Marla E. Watson. (2005). DMSO: Applications in Plastic Surgery. Aesthetic Surgery Journal vol. 25 ,no. 2, 201-209.

Wolke R.L. (2006). What Einstein Told His Cook 2.

台灣化工資訊服務社,台灣化學品進口商名錄,2006 年。

中華民國環境分析學會,環境分析--原理與應用,2012 年。

夏春,曲中華,模似煙道法測定煙塵採樣器的等速吸引誤差,計量技術,2001年 09期。

郭錦堂,汪禧年,曹智超, 二甲基甲醯胺之液態被動式採樣器採樣評
估研究,勞工安全衛生研究季刊,第18卷第1期,第67-73頁,2000 年。

勞工安全衛生研究所。職場丙烯醯胺容許標準建議值文件,[http://www.iosh.gov.tw/data/f1/rel960202.htm],2007年。

鄭福田,微粒導論, 1990年。

賴俊雄等人,台灣省聚尿樹脂及合成皮製造工廠作業勞工有機溶劑暴露實況與健康影響調查研究,台灣勞工處,1992 年。

環境檢驗所,丙烯醯胺等有機空氣污染物檢測技術開發研究,計畫編號:EPA-100-1602-02-03,2012 年。

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top