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研究生:曾柏諺
研究生(外文):Tseng, Poyen
論文名稱:比較不同豬隻品種之肉品品質及流變特性
論文名稱(外文):Comparison of Meat Quality and Rheological Property Among Different Pig Breeds
指導教授:郭孟怡郭孟怡引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo, Mengi
口試委員:金悅祖郭士逢
口試委員(外文):King, YuehtsuGuo, Shyhforng
口試日期:2012-12-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:豬肉部位肉品品質流變特性微結構
外文關鍵詞:porkpartsmeat qualityrheological propertymicrostructure
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豬肉為台灣最重要的畜產品之一。了解品種及部位對豬肉品質的影響並建立客觀的品質評估方法有其必要性,進而提高品質及經濟價值。因此,本研究目的為比較台灣現有三品種豬隻背脊肉 (俗稱里肌肉) 及腹協肉 (俗稱三層肉) 之肉品品質及三品種豬隻兩部位生熟肉之流變特性及微結構。研究分為兩部分進行,第一部為品質特性,分析盤克夏 (Berkshire)、李宋-陸川雜交豬及三品種雜交豬(LYD) 之組成分、顏色、保水力、滴水失重 (drip loss)、油花 (marbling) 及質地。油花則是利用軟體分析 (Pork Meat Rating System)。第二部分為三品種豬隻背脊肉及腹協肉流變特性及微結構。利用物性儀測量肉品應力鬆弛 (stress relaxation),並利用共軛焦雷射掃描式顯微鏡觀察肉品結構及組成分的分布。研究結果顯示,盤克夏 (Berkshire) 豬肉滴水失重最高而保水力最低,其背脊肉部分,水分含量最低但脂肪及蛋白質含量最高,且有最多的油花。李宋-陸川雜交豬的腹協肉水分及蛋白質含量最高但脂肪含量最少,且顏色最亮。LYD 的豬肉顏色為暗紅色。質地部分,LYD 背脊肉的硬度最高,腹協肉則是李宋-陸川雜交豬最高。流變部分,藉由將應力鬆弛轉換成線性所得的參數可知,不管是背脊肉或腹協肉經煮後彈性質 (K2) 皆上升。而藉由two-element Maxwell 模型轉換應力鬆弛曲線所得的參數結合由微結構及組成分可知,彈性參數 (E1 和 E2) 可能與水分有關,鬆弛時間較短的 (λ1) 可能與結締組織中的膠原蛋白有關,較長的 (λ2) 可能與肌纖維蛋白有關。由微結構可知,背脊肉及腹協肉的肌纖維經煮後有聚集與皺縮現象,此現象可能會造成λ1 及λ2 的改變。由上述結果可知,此研究的方法可觀察出三品種豬隻的背脊肉及腹協肉之肉品品質之間的差異。而藉由流變特性及微結構的
觀察,可解釋肉品品質經煮後的變化。
Pork is one of the most important farm products in Taiwan. Understanding the effects of pig breeds and parts on pork quality, and establishing an objective method for quality evaluation are necessary for the consideration of the improvement in pork quality and its economic value. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the quality of loin and of belly from different pig breeds, and to study the rheological properties and microstructure of raw and cooked pork from different pig breed and parts. This research was generally divided into two parts. The first part was focus on the quality characteristic, where the chemical composition, color, water-holding capacity, drip loss, marbling and the texture of pork loin and of belly from Berkshire, LeeSung-LuChuan and LYD three-breed cross pigs were analyzed. The marbling score was obtained by using the Pork Meat Rating System. The second part placed emphasis on the rheological property and the microstructure of raw and cooked pork from the loin and belly. The stress relaxation of pork was measured by using the texture analyzer. The composition distribution and microstructure of pork were observed by using the confocal-laser scanning microscope. The results showed that Berkshire pork had the lowest water-holding capacity and consequently the highest drip loss. Berkshire loin had the lowest moisture content but the highest in fat and in protein contents and also in marbling score. The belly of LeeSung-LuChuan had the highest moisture and protein content but the lowest in fat content, and the lightest in color. The pork color of LYD was dark and red. The hardness of LYD loin and LeeSung-LuChuan belly was the highest. In stress relaxation, the viscoelastic parameters of linear model showed that the elasticity (K2) of pork belly and loin increased after cooking. According to the result of microstructure and chemical composition of pork, the change in elastic parameters (E1 and E2) of two-element Maxwell model could be related to moisture. The shorter relaxation time (λ1) could relate to the connective tissue protein, collagen. The longer relaxation time (λ2) could relate to the muscle fiber protein. Thermal coagulation and shrinkage of muscle fibers in pork loin and belly during cooking were observed by confocal laser scanner microscope. These changes might lead to the change in relaxation times (λ1 and λ2). The methods developed in this study are able to observe the differences in meat quality of pork loin and belly from three pig breeds. The rheological property and microstructure of meat are able to explain the changes in meat quality during cooking.
Chapter 1 Introduction.............................................................................. 1
Chapter 2 Literature review......................................................................... 4
2.1 Pig............................................................................................. 4
2.1.1 Berkshire pig................................................................................. 5
2.1.2 Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc crossbred pig (LYD) ............................................ 6
2.1.3 Lee Sung pig and Lu chuan pig ................................................................ 7
2.1.4 The development of pig in Taiwan ............................................................. 7
2.2 Meat quality characteristics.................................................................... 8
2.2.1 Breeds........................................................................................ 10
2.2.2 Parts......................................................................................... 12
2.2.3 Muscle characters ............................................................................ 13
2.2.4 Cooking .......................................................................................14
2.3 Rheology ....................................................................................... 15
2.3.1 Stress relaxation test ....................................................................... 16
2.3.2 The stress relaxation test on meat ........................................................... 19
Chapter 3 Materials and Methods .................................................................... 30
3.1 Experimental design............................................................................. 30
3.2 Materials ...................................................................................... 30
3.3 Methods ........................................................................................ 31
3.3.1 Chemical composition ......................................................................... 31
3.3.2 Color ........................................................................................ 32
3.3.3 Drip loss .................................................................................... 33
3.3.4 Water-holding capacity (WHC) ................................................................. 33
3.3.5 Marbling ..................................................................................... 34
3.3.6 Texture ...................................................................................... 34
3.3.7 Microstructure ............................................................................... 35
3.3.8 Stress relaxation .............................................................................36
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion ................................................................... 40
4.1 The quality of pork loin and belly from different pig breeds ................................... 40
4.1.1 The chemical composition of pork ............................................................. 40
4.1.2 The appearance of pork ....................................................................... 40
4.1.3 The meat quality of pork ..................................................................... 41
4.1.4 The texture of pork .......................................................................... 43
4.1.5 Discussion ................................................................................... 44
4.2 The rheological properties and microstructure of raw and cooked pork from
different pig breeds and parts ..................................................................... 46
4.2.1 The chemical composition of raw and cooked pork .............................................. 46
4.2.2 The stress relaxation test of raw and cooked pork ............................................ 47
4.2.3 The microstructure of raw and cooked pork .................................................... 49
4.2.4 Discussion ................................................................................... 52
Chapter 5 Conclusions .............................................................................. 75
Chapter 6 References ............................................................................... 76
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