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研究生:吳羽婷
研究生(外文):Yu-Ting Wu
論文名稱:國產杏鮑菇之活性成分、抗氧化性及加工產品之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studied on the Active Components, Antioxidant Properties, and Processed Foods of Pleurotus eryngii
指導教授:林聖敦林聖敦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Dun Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:食品科技所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:153
中文關鍵詞:杏鮑菇生理活性成分抗氧化性感官品評
外文關鍵詞:Pleurotus eryngiiActive componentsAantioxidant propertiesSensory evaluation
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中文摘要
  本研究以國產杏鮑菇為試驗材料,將杏鮑菇依生長大小分為A、B、C、D級,探討杏鮑菇之一般成分及呈味成分、杏鮑菇萃取物之抗氧化性及生理活性成分、以杏鮑菇及其加工副產品開發機能性產品。其中以水、50%及95%乙醇於95℃、75℃及75℃萃取所得萃取物分別以0E95C、50E75C及95E75C表示。結果顯示,杏鮑菇之灰分、碳水化合物、脂肪、粗纖維及蛋白質含量 (乾基) 分別為4.50 - 5.27%、78.75 - 86.20%、0.42 - 1.30%、17.95 - 19.76%及9.71 - 16.31%。杏鮑菇萃取物清除DPPH自由基、還原力及總酚含量皆為95E75C (1.548 - 2.183 mg extract/ml, 7.060 - 11.573 mg extract/ml及4.98 - 7.53 mg/g extract) > 50E75C (2.534 - 3.958 mg extract/ml, 11.218 - 15.503 mg extract/ml及2.81 - 3.33 mg/g extract) > 0E95C (2.903 - 3.622 mg extract/ml, 11.363 - 15.753 mg extract/ml及2.20 - 2.81 mg/g extract);螯合亞鐵離子能力 (A級除外) 為50E75C (1.605 - 1.675 mg extract/ml) > 0E95C (1.799 - 2.417 mg extract/ml) > 95E75C (2.371 - 3.270 mg extract/ml);麥角硫因含量含量為50E75C (2.833 - 4.717 mg/g extract) > 95E75C (2.040 - 3.988 mg/g extract) > 0E95C (1.428 - 2.547 mg/g extract);麥角固醇含量以95E75C (12.053 - 12.553 mg/g extract) > 50E75C (0.348 - 0.400 mg/g extract)  0E95C (0.362 - 0.666 mg/g extract);酚酸含量皆為95E75C (1.217 - 1.635 mg/g extract)含量最高。殺菁前後杏鮑菇之游離胺基酸含量(乾基)分別為2.00-12.79 mg/g及12.31-24.89 mg/g;核苷酸含量(乾基)分別為5.64-8.00 mg/g及0.80-1.48 mg/g;麥角硫因含量(乾基)分別為1.162-1.779 mg/g及0.934-1.152 mg/g;麥角固醇(乾基)分別為2.285-2.511 mg/g及2.343-2.479 mg/g;酚酸含量(乾基)分別為0.203-0.242 mg/g及0.282-0.341 mg/g;總多醣含量(乾基)分別為25.27-26.27 g/100g及26.52-30.27 g/100g。所有杏鮑菇殺菁液之凍乾固形物的游離胺基酸、核苷酸、麥角硫因及總酚酸含量皆隨殺菁批次增加而增加。杏鮑菇脫水液的凍乾固形物之游離胺基酸含量為6.98-16.58 mg/g;核苷酸含量為3.02-3.82 mg/g;麥角硫因含量為2.23-3.79 mg/g;酚酸含量為2.23-3.79 mg/g;麥角固醇含量為2.24-6.14 mg/g;總酚酸含量為0.670-0.892 mg/g;粗多醣含量為3.60-4.48 mg/g。經由喜好性感官品評試驗結果,利用異麥芽寡糖糖漿可產製具有機能性的百香果杏鮑菇罐頭及蜜餞。

關鍵字:杏鮑菇、生理活性成分、抗氧化性、感官品評

Abstract
The fresh Pleurotus eryngii were used as test materials. The proximate composition taste components of P. eryngii, the bioactive components and antioxidant properties of extracts, and functional products development were studied. The freeze-dried P. eryngii powders extracted with water, 50% and 95% aqueous ethanol in a shaking bath at 100 rpm for 2 h under 95, 75, and 75C, respectively, were designated as 0E95C, 50E75, and 95E75C, respectively. The result showed that the ash, carbohydrate, fat, crude fiber, and protein content (dry basis) of P. eryngii were 4.50-5.27%, 78.75-86.20%, 0.42-1.30%, 17.95-19.76% and 9.71-16.31%, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power and total phenols content of extracts were 95E75C (1.548-2.183 mg extract/ml, 7.060-11.573 mg extract/ml and 4.98-7.53 mg/g extract) > 50E75C (2.534-3.958 mg extract/ml, 11.218-15.503 mg extract/ml and 2.81-3.33 mg/g extract) > 0E95C (2.903-3.622 mg extract/ml, 11.363-15.753 mg extract/ml and 2.20-2.81 mg/g extract). The chelating ability (except A grade) of extract were 50E75C (1.605-1.675 mg extract/ml) > 0E95C (1.799-2.417 mg extract/ml) > 95E75C (2.371-3.270 mg extract/ml). The ergothioneine contents of extracts were 50E75C (2.833-4.717 mg/g extract) > 95E75C (2.040-3.988 mg/g extract) > 0E95C (1.428-2.547 mg/g extract). The ergosterol content of extracts were 95E75C (12.053-12.553 mg/g extract) > 50E75C (0.348-0.400 mg/g extract)  0E95C (0.362-0.666 mg/g extract). The phenolic acid content of 95E75C are highest among extracts. The free amino acids, 5'­nucleotide, ergothioneine, ergosterol, phenolic acid and polysaccharides content (dry basis) of unblanched P. eryngii were 2.00-12.79 mg/g, 5.64-8.00 mg/g, 1.162-1.779 mg/g, 2.285-2.511 mg/g, 0.202-0.242 mg/g, 23.45-24.36%, respectively. After blanching, the free amino acids, 5'­nucleotide, ergothioneine, ergosterol, phenolic acid and polysaccharides content (dry basis) of P. eryngii were 12.31-24.89 mg/g, 0.80-1.48 mg/g, 0.934-1.152 mg/g, 2.343-2.642 mg/g, 0.281-0.341 mg/g, and 24.23-28.19%, respectively. There was a significant increase in the free amino acids, 5'­nucleotide, ergothioneine and phenolic acid contents of freeze-dried P. eryngii blanching solution solids, with increasing blanching batches. The free amino acids, 5'­nucleotide, ergothioneine, ergosterol, phenolic acid and crude polysaccharides content of freeze-dried centrifugal water solids were 6.98-16.58 mg/g, 3.02-3.82 mg/g, 2.23-3.79 mg/g, 2.24-6.14 mg/g, 0.670-0.892 mg/g and 3.60-4.48 mg/g, respectively. Date obtained from hedonic test, passion fruit P. eryngii canned food and candied fruit could be developed on a functional food with isomaltooligosaccharides syrup.

Keyword: Pleurotus eryngii, Active components, Aantioxidant properties, Sensory evaluation

目錄
頁次
致謝 Ⅰ
中文摘要 Ⅱ
英文摘要 Ⅲ
目錄 Ⅴ
表目錄 Ⅸ
圖目錄 XII
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧 4
  一、杏鮑菇簡介 4
  二、呈味成分 5
   (一)可溶糖 5
   (二)游離胺基酸 10
   (三)核甘酸 10
  三、抗氧化性 13
   (一)自由基 13
   (二)抗氧化 16
   (三)抗氧化性之測定方法 18
  四、生理活性成分 18
   (一)麥角硫因 18
   (二)麥角固醇 20
   (三)多醣體 27
   (四)酚類化合物 28
  五、異麥芽寡糖 29
参、材料與方法 31
  一、試驗材料 31
  二、藥品 31
  三、儀器 36
  四、實驗設計 36
   (一)杏鮑菇萃取物之製備及品質分析 36
   (二)杏鮑菇罐頭及蜜餞產製 38
  五、杏鮑菇一般組成成分 38
   (一)水分測定 38
   (二)灰分測定 40
   (三)粗脂肪測定 40
   (四)粗纖維測定 40
   (五)粗蛋白測定 41
  六、呈味成分分析 41
   (一)游離胺基酸含量測定 41
   (二)核苷酸含量測定 42
  七、抗氧化性分析 43
   (一)清除DPPH自由基能力 43
   (二)還原力測定 43
   (三)螯合亞鐵離子能力 43
  八、生理活性成分分析 44
   (一)麥角硫因含量測定 44
   (二)麥角固醇含量測定 44
   (三)多醣體含量測定 45
   (四)酚類化合物含量測定 45
   (五)總酚含量測定 46
  九、統計分析 46
肆、結果與討論 47
  一、杏鮑菇一般成分之分析 47
      1. 水分含量 47
      2. 灰分含量 47
      3.碳水化合物含量 47
      4.粗脂肪含量 47
      5.粗纖維含量 49
      6.粗蛋白含量 49
  二、杏鮑菇萃取物之萃取率、抗氧化性及生理活性成分 50
   (一)熱水及乙醇萃取物之萃取率 50
   (二)熱水及乙醇萃取物之抗氧化性 50
      1.清除DPPH自由基能力 50
      2.還原力測定 59
      3.螯合亞鐵離子能力 59
   (三)杏鮑菇萃取物之生理活性成分 77
      1.麥角硫因 77
      2.麥角固醇 77
      3.酚類化合物 77
      4.總酚 82
      5.粗多醣體 82
  三、以杏鮑菇及其加工副產品開發機能性產品 82
   (一)杏鮑菇殺菁前後之呈味及生理活性成分 82
1.呈味成分 82
(1) 游離胺基酸 82
(2) 核苷酸 85
2.生理活性成分 85
(1) 麥角硫因 85
       (2) 麥角固醇 93
       (3) 酚類化合物 93
       (4) 多醣體 93
   (二)杏鮑菇殺菁液之呈味及生理活性成分 98
1.呈味成分 98
(1) 游離胺基酸 98
(2) 核苷酸 104
2.生理活性成分 104
(1) 麥角硫因 104
       (2) 麥角固醇 104
       (3) 酚類化合物 111
       (4) 多醣體 111
(三)杏鮑菇脫水液之呈味及生理活性成分 121
1.呈味成分 121
(1) 游離胺基酸 121
(2) 核苷酸 121
2.生理活性成分 126
(1) 麥角硫因 126
       (2) 麥角固醇 126
       (3) 酚類化合物 126
       (4) 多醣體 130
(四)、杏鮑菇罐頭及蜜餞之喜好性感官品質 130
      1.杏鮑菇罐頭 130
      2.杏鮑菇蜜餞 135
伍、結論 139
參考文獻 140





表目錄
表一、杏鮑菇子實體之呈味成分及呈味特性 7
表二、L-胺基酸之呈味特性 11
表三、胺基酸之相對甜度 12
表四、鮮味胺基酸及鮮味核甘酸之個別相對鮮味強度 14
表五、特定食物及飲品中麥角硫因含量 22
表六、食藥用菇子實體麥角硫因之含量 25
表七、不同等級杏鮑菇之重量及大小 34
表八、異麥芽寡糖組成百分比 35
表九、凍乾杏鮑菇之一般成分 48
表十、經冷凍乾燥不同等級杏鮑菇以不同萃取方式萃取之萃取率 51
表十一、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物清除DPPH自由基的
EC50值 60
表十二、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之還原力的
EC50值 68
表十三、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之亞鐵離子螯合能力的
EC50值 76
表十四、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之麥角硫因含量 78
表十五、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之麥角固醇含量 79
表十六、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之總酚酸含量 80
表十七、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之酚酸含量 81
表十八、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之總酚含量 83
表十九、不同等級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得凍乾萃取物之粗多醣含量 84
表二十、杏鮑菇殺菁前後之總游離胺基酸含量 86
表二十一、杏鮑菇殺菁前之游離胺基酸含量 87
表二十二、杏鮑菇殺菁後之游離胺基酸含量 88
表二十三、杏鮑菇殺菁前後之總核苷酸含量 89
表二十四、杏鮑菇殺菁前之核甘酸含量 90
表二十五、杏鮑菇殺菁後之核甘酸含量 91
表二十六、杏鮑菇殺菁前後之麥角硫因含量 92
表二十七、杏鮑菇殺菁前後之麥角固醇含量 94
表二十八、杏鮑菇殺菁前後之總酚酸含量 95
表二十九、杏鮑菇殺菁前後之酚酸含量 96
表三十、殺菁前後之冷凍乾燥杏鮑菇粗多醣含量 97
表三十一、殺菁前後之冷凍乾燥杏鮑菇鹼多醣含量 98
表三十二、殺菁前後之冷凍乾燥杏鮑菇總多醣含量 100
表三十三、杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之重量及總游離胺基酸含量 101
表三十四、杏鮑菇三批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之游離胺基酸含量 102
表三十五、杏鮑菇七批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之游離胺基酸含量 103
表三十六、杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之重量及總核苷酸含量 105
表三十七、A級杏鮑菇不同批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之核甘酸含量 106
表三十八、B級杏鮑菇不同批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之核甘酸含量 107
表三十九、C級杏鮑菇不同批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之核甘酸含量 108
表四十、D級杏鮑菇不同批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之核甘酸含量 109
表四十一、杏鮑菇殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之重量及麥角硫因含量 110
表四十二、杏鮑菇殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之重量及麥角固醇含量 112
表四十三、杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之總酚酸含量 113
表四十四、A級杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之酚酸含量 114
表四十五、B級杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之酚酸含量 115
表四十六、C級杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之酚酸含量 116
表四十七、D級杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之酚酸含量 117
表四十八、杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之重量及粗多醣含量 118
表四十九、杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之重量及鹼多醣含量 119
表五十、杏鮑菇多批次殺菁液冷凍乾燥物之重量及總多醣含量 120
表五十一、杏鮑菇脫水液冷凍乾燥物之重量及總游離胺基酸含量 122
表五十二、杏鮑菇脫水液冷凍乾燥物之重量及游離胺基酸含量 123
表五十三、杏鮑菇脫水液冷凍乾燥物之重量及總核苷酸含量 124
表五十四、冷凍杏鮑菇解凍後脫水液的冷凍乾燥物之核甘酸含量 125
表五十五、杏鮑菇脫水液冷凍乾燥物之重量及麥角硫因含量 127
表五十六、冷凍杏鮑菇解凍後脫水液的冷凍乾燥物之麥角固醇含量 128
表五十七、杏鮑菇脫水液冷凍乾燥物之重量及總酚酸含量 129
表五十八、杏鮑菇脫水液冷凍乾燥物之酚酸含量 131
表五十九、杏鮑菇脫水液冷凍乾燥物之重量及粗多醣含量 132
表六十、添加檸檬酸之百香果杏鮑菇罐頭之喜好性感官品 133
表六十一、百香果杏鮑菇罐頭之喜好性感官品質 134
表六十二、經不同熱風乾燥時間的百香果杏鮑菇蜜餞之喜好性感官品質 136
表六十三、經不同熱風乾燥時間之添加1%檸檬酸的百香果杏鮑菇蜜餞之喜好性
感官品質 137
表六十四、經不同熱風乾燥時間之添加2%檸檬酸的百香果杏鮑菇蜜餞之喜好性
感官品質 138











圖目錄
圖一、杏鮑菇子實體的三個部分 6
圖二、麥角硫因結構 19
圖三、麥角硫因之合成反應圖 20
圖四、麥角固醇結構 26
圖五、酚酸化合物 29
圖六、不同等級杏鮑菇之外觀 32
圖七、不同等級杏鮑菇之長度 32
圖八、杏鮑菇萃取物及其加工副產品之品質特性分析的試驗流程圖 37
圖九、杏鮑菇罐頭及蜜餞製作之試驗流程圖 39
圖十、A級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之清除DPPH自由基能力 52
圖十一、B級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之清除DPPH自由基能力 53
圖十二、C級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之清除DPPH自由基能力 54
圖十三、D級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之清除DPPH自由基能力 55
圖十四、不同等級杏鮑菇之冷凍乾燥水萃取物之清除DPPH自由基能力 56
圖十五、不同等級杏鮑菇之冷凍乾燥50%乙醇萃取物之清除DPPH自由基能力 57
圖十六、不同等級杏鮑菇之冷凍乾燥95%乙醇水萃取物之清除DPPH自由基能力 58
圖十七、A級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之還原力 61
圖十八、B級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之還原力 62
圖十九、C級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之還原力 63
圖二十、D級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之還原力 64
圖二十一、不同等級杏鮑菇經熱水萃取所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之還原力 65
圖二十二、不同等級杏鮑菇經50%乙醇萃取所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之還原 66
圖二十三、不同等級杏鮑菇經95%乙醇萃取所得冷凍乾燥萃取物之還原力 67
圖二十四、A級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力 69
圖二十五、B級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力 70
圖二十六、C級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力 71
圖二十七、D級杏鮑菇經不同萃取條件所得萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力 72
圖二十八、不同等級杏鮑菇熱水萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力 73
圖二十九、不同等級杏鮑菇50%乙醇萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力 74
圖三十、不同等級杏鮑菇95%乙醇萃取物對亞鐵離子之螯合能力 75


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