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研究生:卓倍村
研究生(外文):ZHUO, BEI-CUN
論文名稱:中部某資源回收場內的生物氣膠與重金屬之暴露研究
論文名稱(外文):Assessment of exposure to bioaerosols and heavy metals in a material recovery facility in central Taiwan.
指導教授:劉惠銘劉惠銘引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:資源回收場生物氣膠粒徑分佈重金屬
外文關鍵詞:material recovery facilitybioaerosolssize distributionheavy metal
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近來由於世界的能源與原物料供給日益減少,因此,帶動資源回收業的蓬勃發展。但是,資源回收廠作業過程中會產生金屬粉塵以及生物氣膠,危害資源回收業相關勞工之健康,因此,實有必要針對資源回收業進行生物氣膠與重金屬的暴露評估。
本研究是探討中部某資源回收廠(Material Recovery Facility, MRF)生物氣膠(bioaerosols)及金屬粉塵之暴露評估。生物氣膠的採集乃是以Microbial Air Monitoring System-100 (MAS-100)及安德森六階生物氣膠採樣器進行採集。採集後之生物氣膠進行微生物鑑定,並探討其粒徑分佈(size distribution);而在重金屬採樣方面,係以MOUDITM十階衝擊式採樣器進行採樣,再利用感應耦合電漿原子發射光譜儀(ICP)進行分析,主要分析資源回收場內之Cu、Zn、Cd、Cr、Mn、Ni、Pb、W等8種金屬元素。
本研究發現Aspergillus spp.為真菌最主要優勢菌,則平均濃度為965.8 CFU/m3;在細菌部分,經純化鑑定後以Staphylococus warneri為本研究主要優勢菌種。空氣中真菌的粒徑分佈以金屬回收區3.3~2.1 μm濃度居多,細菌粒徑分佈則以寶特瓶回收區≧7.0 μm的濃度較高。在空氣中的金屬方面,主要的金屬元素成分為Zn及Pb,平均濃度分別為0.71 μg/m3及0.64 μg/m3。此外,MRF內的生物氣膠濃度與相對濕度有關。本次研究空氣中主要指標為Aspergillus spp.和Staphylococus warneri出現在MRF環境中,從本研究的結果可提供給為資源回收的管理依據。

Recently, the world's energy and raw materials availability are progressively dwindling results in rapid development of the materials recycling industry. Bioaerosols and metal dusts are accompanied during materials recycling process and harm to human health. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the exposure to metals and bioaerosols among workers at resource material factories.
This study is to assess exposure of bioaerosols and metals from different working areas at a material recovery facility (MRF) in central Taiwan. In order to investigate species, concentrations and size distribution, airborne fungi and bacterial were taken by using an Anderson 6 stage viable impactor and Microbial Air Monitoring System-100 (MAS-100). Airborne dusts were sampled by a ten-stage micro-orifice uniform deposit cascade impactor (MOUDITM), followed analyzed concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and W by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP -OES).
In this study, the bioaerosol concentrations did not exceed the standard of occupational exposure limit. Aspergillus spp. was the most predominant fungal isolates, with a mean concentration of 965.8 CFU/m3. Staphylococus warneri was the dominant bacterial isolates identified. Meanwhile, the most prevalent fungi occurred in the size range of 3.3~2.1 μm at recycling of PET bottles area. The most prevalent bacteria were found at recycling of metals area in ≧7.0 μm size range. The major metals in airborne dusts were Zn and Pb, with mean concentrations of 0.71 μg/m3 and 0.64 μg/m3, respectively.
This study indicated that relatively humidity was associated with bioaerosol concentrations in MRF environment. Many major indicators of allergenic and toxigenic airborne fungi such as Aspergillus spp. and Staphylococus warneri were found in the material recovery environments. The results obtained from this study may provide useful information for the implementation of management for material recovery facility.

摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 生物氣膠的定義 4
2-1-1空氣中生物氣膠之暴露 4
2-1-2 生物氣膠對人體健康之生物性危害 6
2-2 真菌 10
2-2-1真菌種類 10
2-2-2真菌的特性 12
2-2-3真菌對於人體健康的潛在影響 13
2-3-1 細菌種類 15
2-3-2 細菌的特性 16
2-3-3 細菌對於人體健康的潛在影響 17
2-5-1 粒徑分佈 23
2-5-2 懸浮微粒對人類健康危害 24
2-5-3 金屬元素對人類健康危害 26
第三章 研究方法 28
3-1 採樣策略及規劃 28
3-2 儀器及藥品 31
3-2-1 採樣裝置及實驗耗材 31
3-2-3 微波消化器 40
3-2-4 ICP-OES感應耦合電漿光譜儀 41
3-2-5 微生物鑑定套組及藥品 42
3-3 培養基製備與菌種培養及菌種鑑定方法 43
3-3-1 細菌培養及鑑定 43
3-3-2 真菌培養及鑑定 47
3-4 金屬分析方法 49
3-5 採樣分析品質管制與品質保證 50
3-6 統計分析方法 51
第四章 結果與討論 53
4-1 資源回收場不同區域之環境參數 53
4-2 資源回收場不同區域生物氣膠分佈 58
4-3資源回收場不同區域之生物氣膠的濃度與菌種特性 62
4-3-1細菌的特性與分佈 62
4-4資源回收場不同區域之生物氣膠的粒徑分佈特性 77
4-5資源回收場空氣中之重金屬的濃度與特性 95
第五章 結論與建議 100
5-1 結論 100
5-2 建議 102
參考文獻 103
附錄一、室內空氣中總真菌檢測方法 117
附錄二、室內空氣中總細菌檢測方法 126
附錄三、資源回收場菌相圖 134

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