(34.239.176.198) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/23 20:15
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:呂威廷
研究生(外文):Wei-Ting Lu
論文名稱:應用多變量統計的方法辨識並建立水庫集水區水質污染等級劃分的評價模式
論文名稱(外文):Applying a Multivariate Statistical Analysis Model to Evaluate the Water Quality of a Watershed
指導教授:吳明洋吳明洋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Edward Ming-Yang Wu
口試委員:鄭瑞富郭叔隆吳明洋
口試委員(外文):Juey-Fu ChengShu-Lung KuoEdward Ming-Yang Wu
口試日期:2013-07-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:土木與生態工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:182
中文關鍵詞:多變量統計分析集水區因子分析污染因子判別分析
外文關鍵詞:multivariate statistical analysiswatershedfactor analysispollution factordiscriminant analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:1357
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:61
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
  本研究利用台灣翡翠水庫集水區現有的六個水質監測站之九種水質參數,利用多變量統計之各種分析方法,探討九個重要水質參數間的相互關係,期能找出影響本集水區各重要水質變化的主要因子,以及能夠真正反應集水區中各水質參數之間的差異性。經由因子分析之評估,可以簡化為四個主要因子,此四個因子為主要影響本集水區水質優劣程度的主要因子。接著經由"群集分析"將本集水區之水質狀況劃分為五種不同的群集,此五種群集可代表本集水區不同特性的水質狀況與污染程度。最後本研究利用"判別分析"來判別確定待判別樣本的所屬類別,經由判別分析結果,判識正確百分比高達95.37%,且對於較高沉澱性水質及優養化水質判識率高,此結果顯示先前群集分析之分群結果是可以被接受的。當執行因子分析時的水質參數愈多、樣本數愈多時能使結果愈趨穩定,且本研究採用兩年半的水質數據可以有效提高因子分析結果的效度與信度,且有助於未來管理階層於作為水庫集水區污染整治及治理時之參考依據。
  本研究再以AMOS電子計算機程式作因子分析的驗證,最初的直交旋轉假設模式中顯著水準及卡方值僅0.000與93.003,可以說是完全不適配。但經過斜交旋轉後,卻應證;只要加入其共變異曲線即可得知;原先的直交旋轉並不是完全錯誤的假設。本研究作了幾次的探索性因子分析找出;最佳的假設模式圖形,顯著水準0.611與卡方值17.643可以達到標準,終又證明本研究最早提出的直交旋轉假設模式裡的四項因子,各個反應性指標分配是沒有問題的,其內外部品質都非常優良,直交旋轉的模式是可以成立的,這也說明九項水質參數是受到自然界生物、化學及物理關係的影響。

  Multivariate statistics have been applied to evaluate the water quality data collected at 6 monitoring stations in Feitsui Reservoir watershed of Taipei, Taiwan. The objective is to evaluate the mutual correlations among the various water quality parameters in order to reveal the primary factors that affect reservoir water quality, and the differences among the various water quality parameters in the watershed. In this study, using water quality samples collected over a period of two and half years will effectively raise the efficacy and reliability of the factor analysis result. This will be a valuable reference for managing water pollution in the watershed. Additionally, results obtained using the proposed theory and method to analyze and interpret statistical data must be examined to verify their similarity to field data collected on the stream geographical and geological characteristics, the physical and chemical phenomena of stream self-purification, and the stream hydrological phenomena. In this research, the water quality data has been collected over two and half years so that sufficient sets of water quality data are available to increase the stability, effectiveness, and reliability of the final factor analysis results. This can be valuable references for managing, regulating and remediating water pollution in a reservoir watershed.
  In this study, the AMOS computer program was induced to verify the validation of the factor analysis model. This study has proved that the end of the orthogonal rotation hypothesis first proposed in the four factor model. Each reaction index distribution is not a problem. Its internal and external quality are very good.

總目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
致謝 V
總目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 1
1.3 研究內容與流程 2
1.4 研究範圍及限制 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 多變量統計分析之簡介 6
2.2 多變量統計分析應用於水質管理之相關文獻 6
第三章 多變量統計的方法 17
3.1 因子分析 17
3.2 群集分析 19
3.3 判別分析 21
3.4 AMOS之概念 23
3.5 案例分析 24
3.5.1 水質項目選取之種類及時序 24
3.5.2 地點選取 25
第四章 AMOS之應用介紹 27
4.1 AMOS結構方程模式特性 27
4.1.1 SEM之測量模式 30
4.1.2 SEM之結構模式 34
4.1.3 SEM之參數演算方法 36
4.2 驗證性因子分析 40
第五章 多變量統計之結果與分析 44
5.1 因子分析之應用與分析 44
5.1.1 第一因子之有機性污染因子 46
5.1.2 第二因子之優養化污染因子 48
5.1.3 第三因子之季節性因子 48
5.1.4 第四因子之沉澱性污染因子 49
5.2 群集分析之應用與分析 50
5.2.1 第一群集之高沉澱性污染水質 51
5.2.2 第二群集之未受污染水質 52
5.2.3 第三群集之輕度優養化污染水質 53
5.2.4 第四群集之輕度有機性污染水質 54
5.2.5 第五群集之未受污染季節性水質 54
5.3 判別分析之應用與分析 55
5.4 AMOS之CFA模式建立與結果分析 55
5.4.1 AMOS之CFA模式應用 55
5.4.2 AMOS之CFA模式建立 58
5.4.2.1 直交旋轉分析 64
5.4.2.2 斜交旋轉分析 68
5.4.3 AMOS之CFA模式修正 72
5.4.3.1 CFA模式之修正指標 73
5.4.3.2 CFA模式之格式搜索 78
第六章 結論與建議 92
6.1 結論 92
6.2 建議 93
參考文獻 95
附錄 103
附錄一 九項水質參數之原始數據 103
附錄二 歸一化後之九項水質參數表 111
附錄三 直交旋轉之AMOS數據 119
附錄四 斜交旋轉之AMOS數據 127
附錄五 第一次修正指標之AMOS數據 136
附錄六 第二次修正指標之AMOS數據 145
附錄七 第一次格式搜索之AMOS數據 154
附錄八 第二次格式搜索之AMOS數據 162
表目錄
表1.1 河川污染等級分類表 2
表4.1 EFA 與CFA 的差異比較表 41
表5.1 因子分析與變異數之間的結果表 44
表5.2 集水區水質因子之負荷矩陣表 45
表5.3 五種群集的各水質參數之平均值與極值表 51
表5.4 各群集判定分析之檢定表 55
表5.5 SEM 模式適配度的評鑑指標及其評鑑標準表 57
表5.6 初始資料表 59
表5.7 初始相關係數表 59
表5.8 歸一化資料表 59
表5.9 歸一化相關係數表 60
表5.10 常態性分佈評估表 (因子分析) 64
表5.11 標準迴歸係數表(因子分析- 直交旋轉) 66
表5.12 多元相關平方表(因子分析- 直交旋轉) 67
表5.13 直交旋轉評鑑指標表 68
表5.14 標準迴歸係數表(因子分析- 斜交旋轉) 70
表5.15 多元相關平方表(因子分析- 斜交旋轉) 71
表5.16 斜交旋轉評鑑指標表 72
表5.17 修正指標共變異數表 (第一次修正-斜交旋轉) 73
表5.18 標準迴歸係數表(第一次修正-斜交旋轉) 75
表5.19 修正指標共變異數表 (第二次修正-斜交旋轉) 75
表5.20 標準迴歸係數表(第二次修正-斜交旋轉) 77
表5.21 多元相關平方表(第二次修正- 斜交旋轉) 77
表5.22 第二次修正評鑑指標表(斜交旋轉) 78
表5.23 標準迴歸係數表(第一次格式搜索-斜交旋轉) 82
表5.24 多元相關平方表(第一次格式搜索- 斜交旋轉) 82
表5.25 標準迴歸係數表(第二次格式搜索-斜交旋轉) 89
表5.26 多元相關平方表(第二次格式搜索- 斜交旋轉) 90
表5.27 第二次格式搜索評鑑指標表(斜交旋轉) 91
圖目錄
圖1.1 研究流程圖 4
圖2.1 多變量統計分析歸略圖 6
圖3.1 群集分析基本架構圖 20
圖3.2 翡翠水庫集水區地理位置圖 26
圖4.1 觀察變數與潛在變數基本模式圖 31
圖4.2 內因變數與外因變數區分圖 33
圖4.3 外因潛在變數預測內因潛在變數模式圖 35
圖5.1 因子分析立體分佈圖 46
圖5.2 五個群集的因子得分圖 50
圖5.3 pH 值常態分佈圖 61
圖5.4 DO 常態分佈圖 61
圖5.5 BOD 常態分佈圖 61
圖5.6 SS 常態分佈圖 62
圖5.7 MBAS 常態分佈圖 62
圖5.8 NH3-N 常態分佈圖 62
圖5.9 TP 常態分佈圖 63
圖5.10 chloro 常態分佈圖 63
圖5.11 Temp 常態分佈圖 63
圖5.12 直交旋轉圖(因子分析) 65
圖5.13 斜交旋轉圖(因子分析) 69
圖5.14 斜交旋轉第一次修正指標圖 74
圖5.15 斜交旋轉第二次修正指標圖 76
圖5.16 斜交旋轉第一次格式搜索圖 79
圖5.17 第一次AIC 格式搜索圖 80
圖5.18 第一次BIC 格式搜索圖 80
圖5.19 斜交旋轉第一次格式搜索完成圖 81
圖5.20 斜交旋轉第二次格式搜索圖 84
圖5.21 第二次AIC 格式搜索圖 86
圖5.22 第二次BIC 格式搜索圖 86
圖5.23 斜交旋轉第二次格式搜索分析圖 87
圖5.24 斜交旋轉第二次格式搜索完成圖 88
圖5.25 格式搜索分析圖 89

1.吳明隆,「結構方程模式-AMOS的操作與應用」,五南圖書,台北, (2013)。
2.周文賢,「多變量統計分析SAS/STAT使用方法」,智勝文化,台北,(2004)。
3.周子敬,「結構方程模式-精通LISREL」,全華圖書,台北,(2006)。
4.邱皓政,「結構方程模式-LISREL的理論、技術與應用」,雙葉書廊,台北,(2005)。
5.陳正昌、程炳林、陳新豐、劉子鍵,「多變量分析方法-統計軟體應用」,五南書局,台北,第341-469頁(2005)。
6.張紹勳,「研究方法,滄海書局」,台中,(2005)。
7.黃芳銘,「結構方程模式理論與應用」,五南書局,台北,(2004)。
8.黃俊英,「多變量分析」,華泰書局,台北,(2004)。
9.翡翠水庫環境學習中心網,http://www.feitsui.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=9355549&ctNode=47648&mp=12201A
10.Arslan, O., "A GIS-Based Spatial-Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Quality Data in the Porsuk River, Turkey, " Water Qual. Res. J. Can., vol. 44, pp. 279–293 (2009).
11.Bengraine, K., Marhaba, T. F., "Using Principal Component Analysis to Monitor Spatial and Temporal Changes in Water Quality, " J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 100, pp. 179–195 (2003).
12.Bollen, K. A., "Structural equations with latent variables, " Wiley, New York, (1989).
13.Brown, S. D., Sum, S. T., Despagne, F., "Chemometrics, " Anal. Chem., vol. 68, pp. 21–61 (1996).
14.Byrne, B. M., "Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications and programming, " Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, (2001).
15.Chang, T. K., "The Investigation Plan of Pollution Sources in Feitsui Reservoir Watershed [in Chinese]; Annual Research Report, ". Environmental Protection Administration: Taiwan (2009).
16.Chen, J. M., "Using GIS to Analyze Non-Point Source Critical Area in Feitsui Reservoir Watershed [in Chinese], " Master’s Thesis of Engineering for Sustainable Environment, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (2006).
17.Diamantopoulos, A., Siguaw, J. A., "Introducing LISREL: A guide for the uninitiated, " Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, (2000).
18.Einax, J. W., Truckenbrodt, D., Kampe, O., "River Pollution Data Interpreted by Means of Chemometric Methods, " Microchem. J., vol. 58, pp. 315–324 (1998).
19.Everitt, B., Dunn, G., "Applied multivariate data analysis, " Oxford, New York, (2001).
20.Farnham, I. M., Singh, A. K., Stetzenbach, K. J., Johnnesson, K. H., "Treatment of Nondetects in Multivariate Analysis of Groundwater Geochemistry Data, " Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., vol. 60, pp. 265–281 (2002).
21.Hair, J. F. Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., Black, W. C., "Multivariate data analysis, " Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, (1998).
22.Helena, B., Pardo, R., Vega, M., Barrado, E., Fernandez, J. M., Fernandez, L., "Temporal Evolution of Groundwater Composition in an Alluvial Aquifer (Pisuerga River, Spain) by Principal Component Analysis, " Water Res., vol. 34, pp. 807–816 (2000).
23.Hsieh, P. H., Kuo, J. T., Wu, Edward M. Y., Ciou, S. K., Liu, W. C., "Optimal Best Management Practice Placement Strategies for Nonpoint Source Pollution Management in the Fei-Tsui Reservoir Watershed, " Environ. Eng. Sci., vol. 27, pp. 441–449 (2010).
24.Huang, G. H., "Application of the Theory of Multivariate Statistical Inference to the Prediction of Air Pollution in Urban Environment. Proceedings of POLMET 88—International Conference on Pollution in the Urban Environment, " Vincent Blue Copy Co. Ltd., Hong Kong (1988).
25.İşçen, C., Altın, A., Şenoğlu, B., Yavuz, H., "Evaluation of surface water quality characteristics by using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Euphrates river basin, Turkey, " Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 151, No. 1-4, pp. 259-264 (2009).
26.Joreskog, K. G., Sorbom, D., "LISREL 8 user's reference guide, " Scientific Software International, Chicago, (1996).
27.Kaiser, H. F., "An Index of Factorial Simplicity. Psychometrike, " vol. 39, pp. 31–36 (1974).
28.Kuo, C. W., Lee, C. T., "Trend Analysis of Water Quality in the Upper Watershed of the Feitsui Reservoir. J. Geogr, " Sci., vol. 38, pp. 111–128 (2004).
29.Lambrakis, N., Antonakos, A., Panagopoulos, G., "The Use of Multicomponent Statistical Analysis in Hydrological Environmental Research, " Water Res., vol. 38, pp. 1862–1872 (2004).
30.Lin, C., Wu, Edeard M. Y., Lee, C. N., Kuo, S. L., "Multivariate Statistical Factor and Cluster Analyses for Selecting Food Waste Optimal Recycling Methods, " Environ. Eng. Sci., vol. 28, pp. 349–356 (2010).
31.Liu, C.W., Lin, K. H., Kuo, Y. M., "Application of Factor Analysis in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Blackfoot Disease Area in Taiwan, " Sci. Total Environ., vol. 313, pp. 77–89 (2003).
32.Long, J. S., "Confirmatory factor analysis: A preface to LISREL, " Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, (1983).
33.Mathes, S., Rasmussen, T., "Combining multivariate statistical analysis with geographic information systems mapping: a tool for delineating groundwater contamination, " Hydrogeology Journal. Vol. 14, No.8, pp. 1493-1507 (2006).
34.McKenna, J. E., "An Enhanced Cluster Analysis Program with Bootstrap Significance Testing for Ecological Community Analysis, " Environ. Modell. Software, vol. 18, pp. 205–220 (2003).
35.Mellinger, M., "Multivariate Data Analysis: Its Methods. Chemom, " Intell. Lab. Syst., vol. 2, pp. 29–36 (1987).
36.Mendiguchia, C., Moreno, C., Galindo-Riano, D. M., Garcia-Vargas, M., "Using Chemometric Tools to Assess Anthropogenic Effects in River Water: A Case Study: Guadalquivir River (Spain), " Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 515, pp. 143–149 (2004).
37.Mora-Leyva, I., Pomares-Alfonso, M., Santiago, J. F., Villanueva-Tagle, M., "Multivariate Analysis of Almendares River Waters, " Water Environment Research. Vol. 79, No. 7, pp. 813-816 (2007).
38.Moustaki, I., Joreskog, K. G., Maridis, D., "Factor models for ordinal variables with covariance effects on the manifest and latent variables: A Comparison of LISREL and IRT Approaches, " Structural Equation modeling, vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 487-513, (2004).
39.Palma, P., Alvarenga, P., Palma, V., Fernandes, R., Soares, A., Barbosa, I., "Assessment of anthropogenic sources of water pollution using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study of the Alqueva's reservoir, Portugal, " Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 165, No. 1-4, pp. 539-552 (2010).
40.Reghunath, R., Murthy, T. R. S., Raghavan, B. R., "The Utility of Multivariate Statistical Techniques in Hydrogeochemical Studies: An Example from Karnataka, " India.Water Res., vol. 36, pp. 2437–2442 (2002).
41.Reisenhofer, E., Adami, G., Barbieri, P., "Using Chemical and Physical Parameters to Define the Quality of Karstic Freshwaters (Timavo River, Northeastern Italy): A Chemometric Approach, " Water Res., vol. 32, pp. 1193–1203 (1998).
42.Simeonov, V., Stratis, J. A., Samara, C., Zachariadis, G., Voutsa, D., Anthemidis, A., Sofoniou, M., Kouimtzis, T., "Assessment of the Surface Water Quality in Northern Greece, " Water Res., vol. 37, pp. 4119–4124 (2003).
43.Simeonova, P., Simeonov, V., Andreev, G., "Water Quality Study of the Struma River Basin, Bulgaria (1989–1998), " Cent. Eur. J. Chem., vol. 1, pp. 121–136 (2003).
44.Singh, K. P., Malik, A., Mohan, D., Sinha, S., "Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Gomti river (India): A case study." Water Res., vol. 38, pp. 3980-3992 (2004).
45.Singh, K. P., Malik, A., Sinha, S., "Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources of Gomti river (India) using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study." Anal. Chim. Acta., vol. 538, pp. 355-374 (2005).
46.Soh, S. C., Abdullah, M., " Determination of volatile organic compounds pollution sources in malaysian drinking water using multivariate analysis, " Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 124, No. 1-3, pp. 39-50 (2007).
47.Spicer, J., "Making sense of multivariate data analysis, " Sage, London, (2005).
48.Stevens, J., "Applied multivariate statistics for the social science, " Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, (1996).
49.Sundaray, S.,Panda, U.,Nayak, B.,Bhatta, D., "Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of the Mahanadi river-estuarine system (India) - a case study, " Environmental Geochemistry and Health. Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 317-330 (2006).
50.Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., "Using multivariate statistics, " Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, MA, (2007).
51.Ticlavilca, A., McKee, M., "Multivariate Bayesian Regression Approach to Forecast Releases from a System of Multiple Reservoirs, " Water Resources Management. Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 523-543 (2011).
52.Varol, M., Gökot, B., Bekleyen, A., Şen, B., "WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT OF POLLUTION SOURCES OF TIGRIS RIVER (TURKEY) USING MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES-A CASE STUDY, " River Research and Applications. Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 1428-1438 (2012).
53.Voudouris K.; Panagopoulos A.; Koumantakis J., "Multivariate Statistical Analysis in the Assessment of Hydrochemistry of the Northern Korinthia Prefecture Alluvial Aquifer System (Peloponnese, Greece), " Natural Resources Research. Vol. 9, No.2, pp. 135-146 (2000).
54.Wunderlin, D. A., Dı́az Marı́a del Pilar, Amé, M. V., Pesce, S. F.,Hued, A. C., Bistoni Marı́a de los Ángeles., "Pattern Recognition Techniques for the Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water Quality. A Case Study:: Suquı́a River Basin (Córdoba–Argentina), " Water Res. Vol. 35, pp. 2881-2894 (2001).
55.Wu, Edward M., Kuo, S. L. "Applying a Multivariate Statistical Analysis Model to Evaluate the Water Quality of a Watershed, " Water Environment Research, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 2075-2085 (2012).
56.Yang, Y. H., Zhou, F., Guo, H. C., Sheng, H., Liu, H., Dao, X., He, C. J., "Analysis of spatial and temporal water pollution patterns in Lake Dianchi using multivariate statistical methods, " Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 170, No. 1-4, pp. 407-416 (2010).

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔