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研究生:李明諺
研究生(外文):Ming-Yang Li
論文名稱:磁振造影動脈自旋標記灌流於紐西蘭大白兔腦部發育之探討。
論文名稱(外文):MRI ASL Perfusion on Brain Development of New Zealand Rabbit.
指導教授:陳博洲陳博洲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Po-Chou Chen
口試委員:陳博洲郭士民饒若琪
口試委員(外文):Po-Chou ChenShyh Ming KuoJo-Chi Jao
口試日期:2013-07-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩士在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:動脈自旋標記磁振造影組織灌注紐西蘭大白兔
外文關鍵詞:Arterial spin labelingMagnetic resonance imagingtissue perfusionNew Zealand rabbit
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磁振造影(Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI)於醫學領域上的應用在過去20年有長足的進展,而在臨床應用上,除可提供精確的三維影像以利疾病診斷與腫瘤定位外,其零輻射劑量與非侵入性之優點更是醫療界對之倚賴日亦加深的關鍵。灌流係指氧的交付和營養物質通過組織血流量最主要的生理參數之一。灌流相關疾病亦被視為殘障與死亡的主要原因之一。量測灌流除可直接診斷血管疾病,也可作為生理和病理功能之生物標誌。本研究使用動脈自旋標記法量測傳統組織灌注。灌注以每單位時間每克組織血流量的毫升數(毫升/克/分鐘)為單位。多種動脈自旋標記法可應用於幾乎所有的器官上。由於動脈血流供應極佳且腦組織之灌流高,所以動脈自旋標記法已被應用在腦部。本研究使用磁振造影動脈自旋標記的技術,實驗使用五隻出生四周齡之紐西蘭大白兔於五周齡起開始進行磁振造影實驗直到24周齡止,共20周。結果發現,紐西蘭大白兔的腦血流量由8周齡起有升高的趨勢,於第12~13周間顯著上升,而至第17周齡時則為迅速下降趨勢,直到21周齡起下降速度才逐漸趨緩。本研究證實以ASL MRI掃描分析紐西蘭大白兔之腦血流灌注是可行且具臨床意義的。
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques have been extensively improved in the past 20 years and have been recognized as a potential technique in the clinical diagnosis as well as tumor localization. MRI has the advantages of three-dimensional imaging capability with no radiation involved, and is non-invasive. Perfusion refers to the delivery of oxygen and nutrient to tissues by means of blood flow and is one of the most fundamental physiological parameter. Disorders of perfusion also account for one of the most leading cause of medical disability and mortality. Perfusion measurements have direct diagnostic values in vascular disorders and also serve as biomarkers for a broader range of physiological and pathophysiological functions. In this study, Classical tissue perfusion is measured using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. This yields a perfusion measurement in unit of milliliters of blood flow per gram of tissue per unit time (ml/g/min). Arterial spin labeling can be accomplished using a variety of approaches and in nearly any organ. ASL has been carried out in the brain because the arterial supply is extremely well defined and perfusion to brain tissue is high. Five 4-week old New Zealand rabbits were recruited to longitudinally investigate brain perfusion in this study by using of ASL MRI within 5 to 24-week old in this study. The experiments last for 20 weeks. We found that the cerebral blood flow of New Zealand rabbit started to increase at 8-week old, then significantly increased from 12 to 13-week old and began to decrease rapidly from 17-week old, and finally became gradually decrease at 21-week old. It was demonstrated that it is feasible and of clinical significance to investigate the cerebral blood flow perfusion in New Zealand rabbits’ brain by using ASL MRI.
誌謝 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x

第一章 緒論 1
1-1前言 1
1-2研究動機 5
1-3論文架構 8

第二章 研究背景與原理 9
2-1腦部生理與病理 9
2-1-1腦部血流的解剖與生理 9
2-1-2腦部病理 13
2-2研究背景 18
2-3研究目的 19
2-4磁造造影檢查及相關注意事項 21
2-5磁振造影原理及應用 23

第三章 實驗材料與方法 38
3-1實驗構想 38
3-2實驗材料與設備 39
3-3實驗方法 43
3-3-1掃描計畫 43
3-3-2掃描前準備事項 45
3-3-3掃描影像處理 46

第四章 實驗結果 50
4-1 ASL-rCBF全腦ROI值之統計分析 50
4-2 ASL-rCBF全腦ROI值之統計分析結果 56

第五章 討論與結論 58
5-1討論 58
5-2結論 60

第六章 參考文獻 61

圖目錄
圖1-1 伊西多•拉比 1
圖1-2 達馬汀全身NMR造影儀 2
圖1-3 含釓顯影劑(Gd-DTPA) 4
圖1-4 正子掃描影像 5
圖1-5 單光子電腦斷層掃描影像 5
圖1-6 電腦斷層影像 6
圖1-7 電腦斷層掃描儀 6
圖1-8 磁振造影掃描儀 7
圖2-1 頸動脈(Carotid Artery) 10
圖2-2 威力式環(The Circle of Willis) 10
圖2-3 腦組織內出血 15
圖2-4 蜘蛛網膜下腔出血 15
圖2-5 電腦斷層出血性腦中風 16
圖2-6 電腦斷層梗塞性腦中風 16
圖2-7 磁振造影出血性腦中風 17
圖2-8 磁振造影腦梗塞性中風 17
圖2-9 渦流分子模型示意圖 23
圖2-10 Spin自旋 24
圖2-11 旋進(Precession) 25
圖2-12 RF脈衝後,縱軸磁向量被偏轉到X-Y平面上 26
圖2-13 縱向磁量的成長曲線,其成長速率為T1 27
圖2-14 RF射頻脈衝關掉後,橫向量會開始衰減,而縱向分量則開始回復 27
圖2-15 橫向磁量的衰減曲線,其衰減速率T2 28
圖2-16 在X-Y平面上衰減的速率和沿著z軸成長的速率是相同的 29
圖2-17 自由感應衰減(Free Induction Decay, FID) 30
圖2-18 兩個連續的90度脈衝的時間差,定義為重複時間(The Repetition Time ,TR) 31
圖2-19 選擇具有特定厚度的切面並給予磁場不同的強度 32
圖2-20 3*3 矩陣,每個像素都被指定了一個大小值 32
圖2-21 動脈自旋標記法的使用方式 37
圖3-1 SIEMENS MAGNETOM Skyra 3T 磁振造影儀 39
圖3-2 SIEMENS 3T八通道高解析度膝部線圈(8-channel high resolution knee coil) 40
圖3-3 舒泰 50(Zoletil 50) 41
圖3-4 若朋(Rompun) 42
圖3-5 ASL 掃描後所得到的影像 46
圖3-6 ASL-rCBF 影像 47
圖3-7 ASL-EPI 灰階影像 48
圖3-8 將ASL-EPI灰階影像複製到ASL-rCBF影像 49
圖4-1 H1 全腦之ASL-rCBF & Age之曲線圖 51
圖4-2 H2 全腦之ASL-rCBF & Age之曲線圖 52
圖4-3 H3 全腦之ASL-rCBF & Age之曲線圖 53
圖4-4 H4 全腦之ASL-rCBF & Age之曲線圖 54
圖4-5 H5 全腦之ASL-rCBF & Age之曲線圖 55
圖4-6 五隻紐西蘭大白兔量測值總和統計曲線圖 57
圖5-1 EPI 灰階影像 59

表目錄
表1-1 腦損害後病人腦氧氣和合的情況 11
表4-1 H1 ASL-rCBF 量測值 50
表4-2 H2 ASL-rCBF 量測值 52
表4-3 H3 ASL-rCBF 量測值 53
表4-4 H4 ASL-rCBF 量測值 54
表4-5 H5 ASL-rCBF 量測值 55
表4-6 編號H1至H5之紐西蘭大白兔ASL-rCBF平均量測值 56

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