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研究生:容兆明
研究生(外文):Hugo Yon Chang
論文名稱:使用電極分離法與熱泵蒸發法進行海水淡化應用於工業冷卻的研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of sea water Desalination by Electrodyalisis and by Evaporation using a Heat Pump Device for industrial cooling
指導教授:陳長仁
指導教授(外文):Chang-Ren Chen
口試委員:周煥銘黎靖
口試委員(外文):Huann-Ming ChouJing Lee
口試日期:2013-06-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:崑山科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:47
外文關鍵詞:Seawaterdesalinationdesalination equipmentelectrodialysisevaporationheat pump devicecoolingsalinity level
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In recent years the fresh and clean water resources are becoming scarce due to the increasing water demands and contamination. This is forcing many government and water authorities to explore new techniques of producing fresh water in high quantities and at a low cost. Since Seawater is the most abundant in the Earth, containing about 97% of the total volume a lot of resources are allocated in this area.

The aim of this work is to decrease the seawater salinity level by using compact and low cost equipment to increase the lifetime of industrial machines that are installed near or above the sea and use seawater for cooling or operation purposes. Two different desalination methods were applied to extract the salt from the water: Electrodialysis (ED) and Evaporation using a heat pump. In both methods the water was pretreated before and after the desalination process using and activated carbon filter to extract most of the suspended solids in the water.

A series of experiments were performed using different flow rates to observe the relationship between the two methods and find the parameters and variables that increase the efficiency of the desalination equipment.
ACKNOLEDGEMENTS VI
CONTENTS VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
LIST OF TABLES XI
NOMENCLATURE XII
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER ONE Concepts and Theory 2
1.1. Seawater desalination processes 2
1.1.1. Desalination technologies based on the separation process 2
1.1.2. Desalination technologies based on the type of energy used 3
1.2. Water Salinity Testing 4
1.2.1. Typical Salinity Levels 4
1.2.2. Units of Measurement 5
1.2.3. Salinity Testing Methods 5
1.3. Water Filtration 6
1.3.3. Factors that affect performance of activated carbon 6
CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 8
2.1. Water Cooling System 8
2.1.1. Types of cooling systems 9
2.1.2. Criteria of alternative water sources for cooling systems 11
2.2. Water Treatment for recirculating water cooling systems 11
2.3. Factors affecting water cooling system performance 11
2.3.1. Scaling 11
2.3.2. Fouling 12
2.3.3. Corrosion 12
CHAPTER THREE Methodology 15
3.1. Seawater Extraction 15
3.1.1. Extraction Location 15
3.1.2. Extraction Equipment 15
3.1.3. Extraction Procedure 16
3.2. Seawater treatment 17
3.3. Salinity Testing Device 18
3.4. Desalination Equipment 19
3.4.1. ED Equipment 19
3.4.2. Evaporation Equipment 24
CHAPTER FOUR Test Description and Results 30
4.1. ED Seawater Desalinator 30
4.1.1. Performance using different flow rates 31
4.1.2. Performance using different voltages 33
4.1.3. Relationship between voltage and current 34
4.2. Heat Pump 35
4.2.1. Performance using different feeding flow rate 35
4.2.2. Performance using different time period 37
4.2.3. Mathematical equation 38
4.3. Comparison between ED Desalinator and Heat Pump 39
4.4. Equipment Electrical Consumption 40
4.5. Equipment Desalination Efficiency 40
4.6. Equipment Desalination Cost 40
CHAPTER FIVE Conclusions and Future Research 42
5.1. Conclusions 42
5.2. Future Work 43
REFERENCES 44
APPENDIX 46



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure.1.1. Desalination technologies classification based on the separation processes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
Figure.1.2. Desalination technologies classification based on the type of energy used…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Figure.2.1. Calcium carbonate crystals…………………………………………………………………..12
Figure.3.1. Bilge Pump…………………………………………………………………………………………..16
Figure.3.2. Pumping Sea Water……………………………………………………………………………..17
Figure.3.3. Seawater treatment…………………………………………………………………………….18
Figure.3.4. Testing Sea Water Salinity ppt.…………………………………………………………….19
Figure.3.5. ED device and desalination process……………………………………………………..20
Figure.3.6. Sea Water Desalinator…………………………………………………………………………20
Figure.3.7. Experiment Electrical Diagram using only the DC power supply…………..22
Figure.3.8. Side view of desalination grills…………………………………………………………….22
Figure.3.9. Experiment Electrical Diagram using the DC power Supply & Car Battery………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…23
Figure.3.10. Experiment Hydraulic Diagram…………………………………………….……………24
Figure.3.11. Horizontal tube falling film evaporator……………………………………………...25
Figure.3.12. Schematic Diagram of Evaporation Equipment………………………………….25
Figure.3.13. Schematic Diagram of the Heat Pump Cycle……………………………………..26
Figure.3.14. Window air conditioner specification plate ………………………………………26
Figure.3.15. Isometric view and overall dimensions of the air duct…………………..….27
Figure.3.16. Heat pump and air duct stand………………………………………………………..…28
Figure.3.17. Experimental setup & equipment complete assembly……………………...29
Figure.4.1. Stainless steel grills in water container…………………………………………….…30
Figure.4.2. ED desalination process……………………………………………………………………...31
Figure.4.3. Graph Salinity vrs. Flow Rate from 3 to 6 Volts………………………….……..…32
Figure.4.4. Graph Salinity vrs. Flow Rate from 7 to 13 Volts……………….………………...33
Figure.4.5. Graph Salinity vrs. Voltage………………………………….……………………………….34
Figure.4.6. Graph Voltage vrs. Current………………………………………………………………….35
Figure.4.7. Graph Salinity vrs. Feeding Flow Rate………………………………………….……..36
Figure.4.8. Graph Fresh Water Production Rate vrs. Feeding Flow Rate……………....37
Figure.4.9. Graph Salinity vrs. Time…………………………………………………………………......38
Figure.4.10. Evaporation desalination process with variables………………………..……..39

LIST OF TABLES
Table.1.1. Conversion table of units of measurement for water salt concentration………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
Table.2.1. Percentage of water used in cooling systems……………………………………………..9
Table.2.2. Comparison of cooling systems……………………………………………………………..….10
Table.2.3. Principal factors contributing to corrosion………………………………………………..13
Table.4.1. Salinity vrs. Flow Rate from 3 to 6 Volts…………………………………………………….31
Table.4.2. Salinity vrs. Flow Rate from 7 to 13 Volts………………………………………………..…32
Table.4.3. Salinity vrs. Voltage……………………………………………………………………………………34
Table.4.4. Voltage vrs. Current…………………………………………………………………………………..35
Table.4.5. Salinity vrs. Feeding Flow Rate………………………………………………………………….36
Table.4.6. Fresh Water Production Rate vrs. Feeding Flow Rate……………………………....37
Table.4.7. Salinity vrs. Time……………………………………………………………………………………….38
Table 4.8. Equipment electrical consumption ……………………………………………………………40
Table 4.9. Equipment desalination efficiency…………………………………………………………….40
Table 4.10. Equipment desalination cost…………………………………………………………………...41
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